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Edition/Copyright: 3RD 01
The most important purpose of Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are ''at issue,'' to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives.
A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original
beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in a world community needs to coexist cooperatively and without constant destructive conflict.
Both instructors and students who pick up Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
The book is organized into five parts and, as much as possible, chapters have been written so that they stand alone. Instructors may thus assign them either in sequence or in a more preferred order to supplement their own course organization.
Part One: Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing. This part introduces students to issues and the characteristics of argument in Chapter 1, helps them begin to develop a personal style of argument in Chapter 2, and provides them with processes for reading and writing argument in Chapters 3 and 4. Writing assignments include the issue proposal, the argument style paper, the analysis of the rhetorical situation paper, the summary-response paper, and the exploratory paper.
Part Two: Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing. This part identifies and explains the parts of an argument according to Stephen Toulmin's model of argument in Chapter 5, explains the types of claims and purposes for argument in Chapter 6, and presents the types of proofs along with clear examples and tests for validity in Chapter 7. Writing assignments include the Toulmin analysis and the position paper based on '''The Reader.''
Part Three: Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument. This part teaches students to write a claim, clarify purpose, and analyze the audience in Chapter 8, to use various creative strategies for inventing ideas and gathering research materials in Chapter 9, and to organize, write, revise, and prepare the final manuscript for a researched position paper in Chapter 10. Methods for locating and using resource materials in the library and online are presented in Chapters 9 and 10. An Appendix to Chapter 10 provides full instruction for documenting sources using both MLA and APA styles.
Part Four: Further Applications: Rogerian Argument/Argument and Literature. This part explains Rogerian argument in Chapter 11 as an alternative to traditional argument and as an effective method for building common ground and resolving differences. Chapter 12 suggests ways to apply argument theory to reading and writing about literature. Writing assignments include Rogerian argument papers and papers about argument and literature. A summary exercise in the Appendix to Chapter 11 invites students to review and synthesize argument theory as they analyze and respond to a well-known classic argument.
Part Five: The Reader. This part is organized around the broad issues concerning families, education, crime and the treatment of criminals, computers, race and culture in America, genetic engineering, and social responsibility. Strategies and questions to help students explore issues and move from reading and discussion to writing are also included.
THE INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND COMPANION WEBSITE
In preparing the Instructor's Manual, my co-contributors and I have included chapter-by-chapter suggestions for using the book in both the traditional and the computer classroom. We have also included sample syllabi. Three instructors have written day-by-day teaching journals, in which they detail how they worked with this book in class and how the students responded. Also included in the manual are strategies for teaching students to use electronic databases, the Internet, and other resources for conducting online and library research. Another chapter suggests how student argument papers can be developed with the help of tutors in a writing center and by online MOOs and chat groups. A set of class handouts ready for photocopying is also provided. Copies of this manual may be obtained from your Prentice Hall representative.
A Companion Website for Perspectives on Argument can be accessed at http://www.prenhall.com/wood. Beth Break is the author of this site.
My greatest debt is to my husband, James A. Wood, who has also taught and written about argument. He helped me work out my approach to argument by listening to me, by discussing my ideas, and by contributing ideas of his own. The process renewed my faith in peer groups and writing conferences. Most writers, I am convinced, profit from talking through their ideas with someone else. I was lucky to find someone so knowledgeable and generous with his time and insights.
I also owe a debt to the first-year English program at The University of Texas at Arlington. When I joined the department a few years ago, I found myself caught up in the ideas and controversies of this program. It provided me with much of the interest and motivation to write this book.
For the past several years, I have trained the graduate teaching assistants in our department who teach argument. An exceptionally alert group of these students volunteered to meet with me and recommend revisions for this third edition. They include Nicole Siek, Christine Flynn Cavanaugh, Vera Csorvasi, Martha Villagomez, Barbara Saurer, Sara Latham, Vannetta Causey, Donna Brown, Kody Lightfoot, Beth Brunk, and Chris Murray Graduate students, many of whom are now faculty members elsewhere, who have contributed recommendations for revisions in earlier editions and that remain a part of the third
edition include Leslie Snow, Samantha Masterton, Lynn Atkinson, J. T. Martin, Kimberly Ellison, Corri Wells, Steve Harding, Barbara Chiarello, Collin G. Brooke, Tracy Bessire, Cheryl Brown, Matthew Levy, Alan Taylor, and Deborah Reese. I hope they will be pleased when they see that I have followed many of their suggestions for improvement. Many other graduate teaching assistants in our program have also taught with this book and have made useful recommendations and suggestions. I am grateful to them for their insight and enthusiasm.
I am also indebted to other colleagues and friends who have helped me with this book. The late James Kinneavy is the originator of the exploratory paper as it is taught in this book. Audrey Wick, Director of First Year English at our university and a seasoned teacher of argument, has provided me with much counsel and advice, including one of her favorite class projects, the literary debate that appears at the end of Chapter 12 on argument and literature. My colleague Tim Morris helped me think through some of the ideas in Chapter 12, and he provided me with many excellent examples of poems and other literary works
that make arguments. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Nicole Siek and Sara Latham, who joined me in reading and voting on all of the new essays in the third edition. I have only included those that survived our joint scrutiny. Christine Flynn Cavanaugh helped locate examples of online research and made recommendations for evaluating such material. Beth Brunk, Corri Wells, Steve Newton, Deborah Reese, Brad McAdon, Samantha Masterton, and Leslie Snow have all either provided chapters or have co-authored chapters in the Instructor's Manual. Beth Brunk formatted and typed it. It has been a constant
pleasure to work with these bright, energetic, and creative colleagues, and I am grateful to all of them for the contributions they have made to this third edition.
I wish I had the space to acknowledge by name the many students from argument classes, including my own, who read the first and second editions and made recommendations for this third edition. Some of them also contributed their own essays to be used as examples, and their names appear on their work. I paid particularly close attention to these student's comments, and I know their suggestions and contributions have made this a better book for other argument students throughout the country.
At Prentice Hall, my greatest debt is to Phil Miller, President, Humanities and Social Sciences, who got me started with this project. I also thank Vivian Garcia, Assistant Development Editor, who was immensely helpful throughout the project, and Leah Jewell, editor in chief. These individuals provided excellent help with all of the various stages of writing and final editing. Thanks also to Brandy Dawson, Marketing Manager, who has always encouraged me along the way. Shelly Kupperman, Senior Production Editor, did her usual impressive and conscientious job of seeing the book through all phases of production.
Bruce Emmer and Diane Garvey Nesin provided outstanding editorial suggestions. Fred Courtright obtained the permissions for this edition. I have felt fortunate to work with such conscientious, reliable, and capable professionals.
I am also indebted to John Schaeffer and the faculty of Blinn College who volunteered suggestions for revisions--and I was able to incorporate all of them. Bob Esch at the University of Texas at El Paso has been generous with his comments and observations, and he has also sent me suggestions for essays for this third edition. I also want to acknowledge the many instructors and students around the country who have e-mailed observations and suggestions for improvement. It a special treat to receive e-mail from people who are using the book and have ideas for improving it.
Other colleagues around the country provided additional ideas and recommended changes that have helped improve the first, second, and third editions. They include Margaret W. Batschelet, University of Texas at San Antonio; Linda D. Bensel-Meyers, University of Tennessee; Gregory Clark, Brigham Young University; Dan Damesville, Tallahassee Community College; Alexander Friedlander, Drexel University; William S. Hockman, University of Southern Colorado; James Kinneavy, University of Texas at Austin; Elizabeth Metzger, University of South Florida; Margaret Dietz Meyer, Ithaca College; Susan Padgett, North Lake College; Randall L. Popken, Tarleton State University; William E. Sheidley, United States Air Force Academy; Diane M. Thiel, Florida International University; Jennifer Welsh, University of Southern California; Shannon Martin, Elizabethtown Community College; Keith Rhodes, Northwest Missouri State University; Kim Donehower, University of Maryland; Lynce Lewis Gaillet, Georgia State University; Carol David, Iowa State University; and Sue Preslar, University of North Carolina, Charlotte. I am grateful to them for the time and care they took reviewing the manuscript.
Finally, I thank all of you who use this book. I would like to hear about your experiences with it, and I am especially interested in your ideas for improving the chapters and readings. My e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org.
This book has been a genuinely collaborative effort, and I expect that it will continue to be. I hope students will profit from the example and learn to draw on the expertise of their instructors and classmates to help them write their papers. Most writing is more fun and more successful when it is, at least partly, a social process.
I. ENGAGING WITH ARGUMENT FOR READING AND WRITING.
1. A Perspective on Argument.
Essays for Analysis: Applying to College, Made Easy, Nathan Burstein. Girls and Computers. Genetic Engineering, Doran Hayes.
2. Developing Your Personal Argument Style.
Essays for Analysis: We Knew What Glory Was, Shirlee Taylor Haizlip. A View from Berkeley, Chancellor Chang-Lin Tien. Giving People a Second Chance, Ernest Martinez. Why I Want a Wife, Judy Brady. A Simple ''Hai'' Won't Do, Reiko Hatsumi,
3. A Process for Reading Argument.
Essays for Analysis: Jobs Illuminate What Riots Hid: Young Ideals, Sara Rimer. Don't Know Much about History, Roberta Israeloff. The Road to Unreality, Mark Slouka.
4. A Process for Writing Argument.
Essays for Analysis: A Room of Their Own, LynNell Hancock and Claudia Kalb. Coming and Going, Nathan Glazer. Trial by Jury: A Fundamental Right and a Flawed System, Tanya Pierce.
II. UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF ARGUMENT FOR READING AND WRITING.
5. The Essential Parts of an Argument: The Toulmin Model.
Essays for Analysis: Automobile Advertisement. New Yorker Cartoon. What's Happened to Disney Films? John Evans. A Liberating Curriculum, Roberta F. Borkat. Toulmin Analysis of ''What's Happened to Disney Films? Beth Brunk. American Value Systems, Richard Rieke and Malcolm O. Sillars.
6. Types of Claims.
Essays for Analysis: Black America's Moment of Truth, Dinesh D'Souza. Family Values, William Safire. Paying the Price of Female Neglect, Susan Dentzer. What's Wrong with Standard Tests? Ted Sizer. Campus Climate Control, Katie Roiphe. Gene Tests: What You Know Can Hurt You, Barbara Koenig. We're Too Busy for Ideas, Michele McCormick. Reading, Writing, Narcissism, Lilian G. Katz. Devising New Math to Define Poverty, Louis Uchitelle. Study Says Net Use, Depression May Be Linked, Amy Harmon. Hold Your Horsepower, Lyla Fox.
7. Types of Proof.
Essays for Analysis: Censorship or Common Sense, Roxana Robinson. Meet the Philip Morris Generation, Advertisement. The Whiny Generation, David Martin. The Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson. Love Is a Fallacy, Max Shulman. Minor Problems? Kelly Dickerson.
III. WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER THAT PRESENTS AN ARGUMENT.
8. The Research Paper: Clarifying Purpose and Understanding the Audience.
New Yorker Cartoon.
9. The Research Paper: Invention and Research.
Annotated Bibliography: Human Cloning: An Annotated Bibliography, Angela A. Boatwright.
10. The Research Paper: Organizing, Writing, and Revising.
Essays for Analysis: The Highs of Low Technology, Johanne Mednick. The Importance of Jury Instructions, Tanya Pierce. Alaskan Wolf Management, Darrell D. Greer.
IV. FURTHER APPLICATIONS: ROGERIAN ARGUMENT; ARGUMENT AND LITERATURE.
11. Rogerian Argument and Common Ground.
Essays for Analysis: When Special Care Is Called For, Advertisement. Human Cloning: Is It a Viable Option? Angela A. Boatwright. Special Education's Best Intentions, Lois Agnew. Dear Mom, Taryn Barnett. A Letter to William A. Henry III, Doran Hayes. A Call for Unity: Letter from Eight White Clergymen. Letter from Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr.
12. Argument and Literature.
Literature for Analysis: POEM: Theme for English B, Langston Hughes. SHORT STORY: The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas, Ursula K. Le Guin. PLAY: Trifles, Susan Glaspell. ARGUMENT BY A LITERARY CHARACTER: Antony's Funeral Speech for Caesar. Marc Antony's Argument, Sara Orr.
Introduction to ''The Reader'': Reading and Writing about Issue Areas.
I. Issues Concerning Families.
1. How Do Men's and Women's Ideas about Themselves Influence the Roles They Play in Their Families?
The Opposite Sex, Steven Doloff. The Future Is Ours to Lose, Naomi Wolf. Can Women ''Have It All?'', William A. Henry III. Father's Role at Home Is Under Negotiation, Scott Coltrane. Building a Better Dad, Jerry Adler.
2. What Are Some Variations on the Traditional Family? How Effective Are These Variations?
The Future of Marriage, Stephanie Coontz. Single Motherhood Is a Joy, Not a Disaster, Carolyn Edy. A Matter of Faith, Jerry Adler. Marriage As We See It, Chris Glaser. Let Gays Marry, Andrew Sullivan. Leave Marriage Alone, William Bennett. The Changing Family: Breaking the Mold of a Traditional Home, Esther B. Fein.
II. Issues in Education.
1. What Should Schools Teach?
Toward Good Thinking on Essential Questions, Howard Gardner. Finding the Answers in Drills and Rigor, E. D. Hirsch Jr. Hollow Curriculum, Robert N. Sollod.
2. What Can Be Done to Improve Schools?
Back to Basics in the Bronx, David Grann. Science for Girls Only, Patricia A. King. What Should Be Done about Bias in Our Children's Textbooks? Paul C. Vitz.
3. What Are Some of the Problems with Grading/Evaluating Learning?
Making the Grade, Kurt Wiesenfeld. Where's the Merit in the S.A.T.? Eugene E. Garcia. What Do Tests Test? Howard Gardner. Looking for the Tidy Mind, Alas, Janny Scott.
III. Issues Concerning Crime and the Treatment of Criminals.
1. How Should We Treat Convicted Criminals?
Reflections from a Life Behind Bars: Build Colleges, Not Prisons, James Gilligan. Unconventional Punishment for Criminals Catching On, Nicole Koch. A Jailbreak for Geriatrics, George F. Will. Witness to an Execution, Terry FitzPatrick. Turning Bad into Good, Graeme Newman.
2. What Should Be Done with Young Offenders?
Punishment, Patricia Cohen. Crackdown on Kids; Giving Up on the Young, Mike Males and Fay Docuyanan. Who Shot Johnny? Debra Dickerson. Peace in the Streets, Geoffrey Canada.
3. Do Violent Video Games and Books Cause Young People to Commit Crime?
The Secret Life of Teens, John Leland. The Doom Factor, John C. Dvorak. Full Metal Dust Jacket: Books Are Violent, Too, Doreen Carvajal.
IV. Issues Concerning Computers.
1. How Are Computers Changing the Culture?
The New Wired World. An Age of Optimism, Nicholas Negroponte. An Inexorable Emergence: Transition to the Twenty-First Century, Ray Kurzweil. Workers of the World, Get On-Line, Daniel McGinn and Joan Raymond.
2. How Are Computers Changing Their Users?
Drag Net: From Glen to Glenda and Back Again--Is It Possible? Sherry Turkle. Computers Will Be More Human, Michael J. Miller. Potholes on the Road Ahead, Peter McGrath. How Private Is Your Life? Peter Maas
3. How Are Computers Changing Education?
Wire All Schools? Not So Fast... Michael Dertouzos. More Colleges Plunging into Unchartered Waters of On-Line Courses, Karen W. Arenson. The Great Campus Goof-Off Machine, Nate Stulman. Universities Find a Sharp Rise in Computer-Aided Cheating, Ian Zach.
V. Issues Concerning Race and Culture in America.
1. How Do Race and Culture Contribute to an Individual's Sense of Identity?
Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media, bell hooks. The Matter of Whiteness, Richard Dyer. Documented/Undocumented, Guillermo Gómez-Peña. On Being a Conceptual Anomaly, Dorinne K. Kondo. Culture by the Campfire, Esther Pan and Sherry Keene-Osborn.
2. How Close Has America Come to Achieving Racial Equality?
The Good News about Black America, Ellis Cose. The Color of Suspicion, Jeffrey Goldberg. The Politics of Respectability, Randall Kennedy. Improvement Is a Myth, Ana Figueroa.
VI. Issues Concerning Genetic Engineering.
1. To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Agriculture?
Playing God in the Garden, Michael Pollan. Bioengineered Corn May Kill Monarch Butterflies, Rick Weiss. Genetic Engineering Embraced Everywhere Except Europe, Michael Specter. Britons Will Meet on Genetic Foods. Monsanto Says It Won't Market Infertile Seeds, Barnaby J. Feder. Public Meetings Planned on Bioengineered Foods.
2. To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Animals?
With Cloning of a Sheep, the Ethical Ground Shifts, Gina Kolata . Keeping Them Down on the Pharm, Justin Gillis. Could This Pig Save Your Life? Sheryl Gay Stolbert.
3. To What Extent Should Genetic Engineering Be Applied to Humans?
Should We 'Fix' Nature's Genetic Mistakes? Christopher Joyce. Engineering Temperament, Dean Hamer and Peter Copeland. Reprogenetics: A Glimpse of Things to Come, Lee M. Silver. DNA and Destiny, David P. Barash.
VII. Issues Concerning Responsibility.
1. Who Should Be Responsible for the Children?
There's No Place Like Work, Arlie Russell Hochschild. Good News for Working Moms, Barbara Vobejeda. Day Care: A Grand and Troubling Social Experiment, Dorothy Conniff. The Kids Are All Right, Susan Faludi.
2. Who Should Be Responsible for the Poor?
Replacing the Welfare State with an Opportunity Society, Newt Gingrich. Project to Rescue Needy Stumbles against the Persistence of Poverty, Jason DeParle. Nickel-and-Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, Barbara Ehrenreich.
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