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ISBN13: 978-0395918487

ISBN10: 0395918480

Edition: 3RD 99

Copyright: 1999

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Published: 1999

International: No

ISBN10: 0395918480

Edition: 3RD 99

Copyright: 1999

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Published: 1999

International: No

The authors' careful attention to pacing and narrative structure has resulted in a clear, accessible, and authoritative text that is less intimidating to students than most other physical chemistry texts. At the same time, *Physical Chemistry* does not sacrifice the mathematical rigor and comprehensiveness necessary for a junior-level course.

*New!*Material from the chapter on statistics has been moved to Chapter 1.*New!*New material has been added on Mass Spectrometry.*New!*Chapter 8 now has all updated Eo values for half-cells.*New!*Problem sets have been expanded throughout the book, with approximately 100 new problems added to this edition.- The authors clearly explain the experimental and theoretical reasoning behind fundamental concepts before moving into a discussion of the concept itself. This narrative approach results in a greater understanding of the material.
- A "Key Equations" section at the end of each chapter lists equations which the student should become familiar with.
- The order of the chapters has been chosen with great care and allows instructors to choose alternate sequences.
- The "Problems" at the end of each chapter have been organized according to subject matter and the more difficult problems are indicated with an asterisk. Answers to all problems are provided at the back of the book.
- The text has a distinctly historical flavor. Historical vignettes and brief biographies of famous physical chemists help students see how theories have developed.
- Pedagogical features help guide students through the often difficult material: unique chapter-opening previews, worked-out examples, marginal notes, unique end-of-chapter lists of key equations, two categories of problems (numerical problems divided by topic and essay questions), and suggested readings.

*Note: Each chapter ends with Key Equations, Problems, and Suggested Reading. *

The Nature of Physical Chemistry

Some Concepts from Classical Mechanics

Systems, States, and Equilibrium

Thermal Equilibrium

Pressure and Boyle's Law

*Biography: Robert Boyle*

Gay-Lussac's (Charles's) Law

The Ideal Gas Thermometer

The Equation of State for an Ideal Gas

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Ideal Gases

The Barometric Distribution Law

The Maxwell Distribution of Molecular Speeds and Translational Energies

Real Gases

Equations of State

The Virial Equation

**2. The First Law of Thermodynamics**

Origins of the First Law

States and State Functions

Equilibrium States and Reversibility

Energy, Heat, and Work

Thermochemistry

Ideal Gas Relationships

Real Gases

**3. The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics**

*Biography: Rudolph Julius Emmanuel Clausius*

The Carnot Cycle

Irreversible Processes

Molecular Interpretation of Entropy

The Calculation of Entropy Changes

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

Conditions for Equilibrium

The Gibbs Energy

Some Thermodynamic Relationships

The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation

Thermodynamic Limitations to Energy Conversion

**4. Chemical Equilibrium**

*Biography: Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff*

Chemical Equilibrium Involving Ideal Gases

Equilibrium in Nonideal Gaseous Systems

Chemical Equilibrium in Solution

Heterogeneous Equilibrium

Tests for Chemical Equilibrium

Shifts of Equilibrium at Constant Temperature

Coupling of Reactions

Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants

Pressure Dependence of Equilibrium Constants

**5. Phases and Solutions**

Phase Recognition

Vaporization and Vapor Pressure

Classification of Transitions in Single-Component Systems

Ideal Solutions: Raoult's and Henry's Laws

Partial Molar Quantities

The Chemical Potential

Thermodynamics of Solutions

The Colligative Properties

**6. Phase Equilibria**

Equilibrium Between Phases

One-Component Systems

Binary Systems Involving Vapor

Condensed Binary Systems

Thermal Analysis

Ternary Systems

**7. Solution of Electrolytes**

Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis

*Biography: Michael Faraday*

Molar Conductivity

Weak Electrolytes: The Arrhenius Theory

*Biography: Svante August Arrhenius*

Strong Electrolytes

Independent Migration of Ions

Transport Numbers

Ion Conductivities

Thermodynamics of Ions

Theories of Ions in Solution

Activity Coefficients

Ionic Equilibria

Ionization of Water

The Donnan Equilibrium

**8. Electrochemical Cells**

The Daniell Cell

Standard Electrode Potentials

Thermodynamics of Electrochemical Cells

Types of Electrochemical Cells

Applications of emf Measurements

Fuel Cells

Photogalvanic Cells

Electrode Processes

**9. Chemical Kinetics I. The Basic Ideas**

Rates of Consumption and Formation

Rate of Reaction

Empirical Rate Equations

Analysis of Kinetic Results

Techniques for Very Fast Reactions

Influence of Temperature on Reaction Rates

The Arrhenius Equation

Potential-Energy Surfaces

The Preexponential Factor

*Biography: Henry Eyring*

Reactions in Solution

Reaction Dynamics

**10. Chemical Kinetics II. Composite Mechanisms**

Evidence for a Composite Mechanism

Types of Composite Reactions

Rate Equations for Composite Mechanisms

Rate Constants, Rate Coefficients, and Equilibrium Constants

Free-Radical Reactions

Photochemical Reactions

Radiation-Chemical Reactions

Explosions

Catalysis

Reactions in Solution: Some Special Features

**11. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure**

Electromagnetic Radiation and the Old Quantum Theory

Bohr's Atomic Theory

The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics

Quantum-Mechanical Postulates

Quantum Mechanics of Some Simple Systems

Quantum Mechanics of Hydrogenlike Atoms

Physical Significance of the Orbital Quantum Numbers

Angular Momentum and Magnetic Moment

The Rigid Linear Rotor

Spin Quantum Numbers

Many-Electron Atoms

Approximate Methods in Quantum Mechanics

**12. The Chemical Bond**

*Biography: Gilbert Newton Lewis*

The Hydrogen Molecular-Ion, H+2

The Hydrogen Molecule

Valence-Bond Theory for More Complex Molecules

Symmetry in Chemistry

Molecular Orbitals

Appendix: Character Tables

**13. Foundations of Chemical Spectroscopy**

Emission and Absorption Spectra

Atomic Spectra

*Biography: Gerhard Herzberg*

Pure Rotational Spectra of Molecules

Vibrational-Rotational Spectra of Molecules

Raman Spectra

Electronic Spectra of Molecules

Transition Probabilities

Appendix: Symmetry Species Corresponding to Infrared and Raman Spectra

**14. Some Modern Applications of Spectroscopy**

Laser Spectroscopy

Spectral Line Widths

Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Mossbauer Spectroscopy

Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

Chiroptical Methods

Mass Spectrometry

**15. Molecular Statistics**

Forms of Molecular Energy

*Biography: Ludwig Boltzmann*

Statistical Mechanics

The Partition Function

Thermodynamic Quantities from Partition Functions

The Partition Function for Some Special Cases

The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Gibbs Energy Functions

The Calculation of Equilibrium Constants

Transition-State Theory

The Canonical Ensemble

Appendix: Some Definite Integrals Often Used in Statistical Mechanics

**16. The Solid State**

Crystal Forms and Crystal Lattices

X-Ray Crystallography

Experimental Methods

Theories of Solids

Electrical Conductivity in Solids

Statistical Thermodynamics of Crystals: Theories of Heat Capacities

Optical Properties of Solids

**17. The Liquid State**

Liquids Compared with Dense Gases

Liquids Compared with Solids

Intermolecular Forces

Theories and Models of Liquids

Water, the Incomparable Liquid

**18. Surface Chemistry and Colloids**

Adsorption

Adsorption Isotherms

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Adsorption

Chemical Reactions on Surfaces

Surface Heterogeneity

The Structure of Solid Surfaces and of Adsorbed Layers

Surface Tension and Capillarity

Liquid Films on Surfaces

*Biography: Agnes Pockels*

Solid-Liquid Interfaces

Colloidal Systems

**19. Transport Properties**

Viscosity

Diffusion

Sedimentation

Electrokinetic Effects

**20. Macromolecules**

Mechanisms of Polymerization

Kinetics of Polymerization

The Sizes of Macromolecules

Molecular Sizes and Shapes

The Microstructure of Polymer Chains

*Biography: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin*

The Shapes of Polymer Chains

Physical Properties of Solid Polymers

Appendix A Units, Quantities, and Symbols: The SI/IUPAC Recommendations

Appendix B Physical Constants

Appendix C Some Mathematical Relationships

Appendix D Standard Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation

Appendix E Character Tables for Some Important Symmetry Groups in Chemistry

Answers to Problems

Index

Keith J. Laidler and John H. Meiser

ISBN13: 978-0395918487ISBN10: 0395918480

Edition: 3RD 99

Copyright: 1999

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Published: 1999

International: No

The authors' careful attention to pacing and narrative structure has resulted in a clear, accessible, and authoritative text that is less intimidating to students than most other physical chemistry texts. At the same time, *Physical Chemistry* does not sacrifice the mathematical rigor and comprehensiveness necessary for a junior-level course.

*New!*Material from the chapter on statistics has been moved to Chapter 1.*New!*New material has been added on Mass Spectrometry.*New!*Chapter 8 now has all updated Eo values for half-cells.*New!*Problem sets have been expanded throughout the book, with approximately 100 new problems added to this edition.- The authors clearly explain the experimental and theoretical reasoning behind fundamental concepts before moving into a discussion of the concept itself. This narrative approach results in a greater understanding of the material.
- A "Key Equations" section at the end of each chapter lists equations which the student should become familiar with.
- The order of the chapters has been chosen with great care and allows instructors to choose alternate sequences.
- The "Problems" at the end of each chapter have been organized according to subject matter and the more difficult problems are indicated with an asterisk. Answers to all problems are provided at the back of the book.
- The text has a distinctly historical flavor. Historical vignettes and brief biographies of famous physical chemists help students see how theories have developed.
- Pedagogical features help guide students through the often difficult material: unique chapter-opening previews, worked-out examples, marginal notes, unique end-of-chapter lists of key equations, two categories of problems (numerical problems divided by topic and essay questions), and suggested readings.

Table of Contents

*Note: Each chapter ends with Key Equations, Problems, and Suggested Reading. *

The Nature of Physical Chemistry

Some Concepts from Classical Mechanics

Systems, States, and Equilibrium

Thermal Equilibrium

Pressure and Boyle's Law

*Biography: Robert Boyle*

Gay-Lussac's (Charles's) Law

The Ideal Gas Thermometer

The Equation of State for an Ideal Gas

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Ideal Gases

The Barometric Distribution Law

The Maxwell Distribution of Molecular Speeds and Translational Energies

Real Gases

Equations of State

The Virial Equation

**2. The First Law of Thermodynamics**

Origins of the First Law

States and State Functions

Equilibrium States and Reversibility

Energy, Heat, and Work

Thermochemistry

Ideal Gas Relationships

Real Gases

**3. The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics**

*Biography: Rudolph Julius Emmanuel Clausius*

The Carnot Cycle

Irreversible Processes

Molecular Interpretation of Entropy

The Calculation of Entropy Changes

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

Conditions for Equilibrium

The Gibbs Energy

Some Thermodynamic Relationships

The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation

Thermodynamic Limitations to Energy Conversion

**4. Chemical Equilibrium**

*Biography: Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff*

Chemical Equilibrium Involving Ideal Gases

Equilibrium in Nonideal Gaseous Systems

Chemical Equilibrium in Solution

Heterogeneous Equilibrium

Tests for Chemical Equilibrium

Shifts of Equilibrium at Constant Temperature

Coupling of Reactions

Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants

Pressure Dependence of Equilibrium Constants

**5. Phases and Solutions**

Phase Recognition

Vaporization and Vapor Pressure

Classification of Transitions in Single-Component Systems

Ideal Solutions: Raoult's and Henry's Laws

Partial Molar Quantities

The Chemical Potential

Thermodynamics of Solutions

The Colligative Properties

**6. Phase Equilibria**

Equilibrium Between Phases

One-Component Systems

Binary Systems Involving Vapor

Condensed Binary Systems

Thermal Analysis

Ternary Systems

**7. Solution of Electrolytes**

Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis

*Biography: Michael Faraday*

Molar Conductivity

Weak Electrolytes: The Arrhenius Theory

*Biography: Svante August Arrhenius*

Strong Electrolytes

Independent Migration of Ions

Transport Numbers

Ion Conductivities

Thermodynamics of Ions

Theories of Ions in Solution

Activity Coefficients

Ionic Equilibria

Ionization of Water

The Donnan Equilibrium

**8. Electrochemical Cells**

The Daniell Cell

Standard Electrode Potentials

Thermodynamics of Electrochemical Cells

Types of Electrochemical Cells

Applications of emf Measurements

Fuel Cells

Photogalvanic Cells

Electrode Processes

**9. Chemical Kinetics I. The Basic Ideas**

Rates of Consumption and Formation

Rate of Reaction

Empirical Rate Equations

Analysis of Kinetic Results

Techniques for Very Fast Reactions

Influence of Temperature on Reaction Rates

The Arrhenius Equation

Potential-Energy Surfaces

The Preexponential Factor

*Biography: Henry Eyring*

Reactions in Solution

Reaction Dynamics

**10. Chemical Kinetics II. Composite Mechanisms**

Evidence for a Composite Mechanism

Types of Composite Reactions

Rate Equations for Composite Mechanisms

Rate Constants, Rate Coefficients, and Equilibrium Constants

Free-Radical Reactions

Photochemical Reactions

Radiation-Chemical Reactions

Explosions

Catalysis

Reactions in Solution: Some Special Features

**11. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure**

Electromagnetic Radiation and the Old Quantum Theory

Bohr's Atomic Theory

The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics

Quantum-Mechanical Postulates

Quantum Mechanics of Some Simple Systems

Quantum Mechanics of Hydrogenlike Atoms

Physical Significance of the Orbital Quantum Numbers

Angular Momentum and Magnetic Moment

The Rigid Linear Rotor

Spin Quantum Numbers

Many-Electron Atoms

Approximate Methods in Quantum Mechanics

**12. The Chemical Bond**

*Biography: Gilbert Newton Lewis*

The Hydrogen Molecular-Ion, H+2

The Hydrogen Molecule

Valence-Bond Theory for More Complex Molecules

Symmetry in Chemistry

Molecular Orbitals

Appendix: Character Tables

**13. Foundations of Chemical Spectroscopy**

Emission and Absorption Spectra

Atomic Spectra

*Biography: Gerhard Herzberg*

Pure Rotational Spectra of Molecules

Vibrational-Rotational Spectra of Molecules

Raman Spectra

Electronic Spectra of Molecules

Transition Probabilities

Appendix: Symmetry Species Corresponding to Infrared and Raman Spectra

**14. Some Modern Applications of Spectroscopy**

Laser Spectroscopy

Spectral Line Widths

Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Mossbauer Spectroscopy

Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

Chiroptical Methods

Mass Spectrometry

**15. Molecular Statistics**

Forms of Molecular Energy

*Biography: Ludwig Boltzmann*

Statistical Mechanics

The Partition Function

Thermodynamic Quantities from Partition Functions

The Partition Function for Some Special Cases

The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Gibbs Energy Functions

The Calculation of Equilibrium Constants

Transition-State Theory

The Canonical Ensemble

Appendix: Some Definite Integrals Often Used in Statistical Mechanics

**16. The Solid State**

Crystal Forms and Crystal Lattices

X-Ray Crystallography

Experimental Methods

Theories of Solids

Electrical Conductivity in Solids

Statistical Thermodynamics of Crystals: Theories of Heat Capacities

Optical Properties of Solids

**17. The Liquid State**

Liquids Compared with Dense Gases

Liquids Compared with Solids

Intermolecular Forces

Theories and Models of Liquids

Water, the Incomparable Liquid

**18. Surface Chemistry and Colloids**

Adsorption

Adsorption Isotherms

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Adsorption

Chemical Reactions on Surfaces

Surface Heterogeneity

The Structure of Solid Surfaces and of Adsorbed Layers

Surface Tension and Capillarity

Liquid Films on Surfaces

*Biography: Agnes Pockels*

Solid-Liquid Interfaces

Colloidal Systems

**19. Transport Properties**

Viscosity

Diffusion

Sedimentation

Electrokinetic Effects

**20. Macromolecules**

Mechanisms of Polymerization

Kinetics of Polymerization

The Sizes of Macromolecules

Molecular Sizes and Shapes

The Microstructure of Polymer Chains

*Biography: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin*

The Shapes of Polymer Chains

Physical Properties of Solid Polymers

Appendix A Units, Quantities, and Symbols: The SI/IUPAC Recommendations

Appendix B Physical Constants

Appendix C Some Mathematical Relationships

Appendix D Standard Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation

Appendix E Character Tables for Some Important Symmetry Groups in Chemistry

Answers to Problems

Index

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