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Physical Chemistry

Physical Chemistry - 3rd edition

ISBN13: 978-0395918487

Cover of Physical Chemistry 3RD 99 (ISBN 978-0395918487)
ISBN13: 978-0395918487
ISBN10: 0395918480
Edition: 3RD 99
Copyright: 1999
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Published: 1999
International: No

Other Editions for Physical Chemistry

Physical Chemistry - 3RD 99 edition

ISBN13: 978-0395918487

Keith J. Laidler and John H. Meiser

ISBN13: 978-0395918487
ISBN10: 0395918480
Edition: 3RD 99
Copyright: 1999
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Published: 1999
International: No

The authors' careful attention to pacing and narrative structure has resulted in a clear, accessible, and authoritative text that is less intimidating to students than most other physical chemistry texts. At the same time, Physical Chemistry does not sacrifice the mathematical rigor and comprehensiveness necessary for a junior-level course.

  • New! Material from the chapter on statistics has been moved to Chapter 1.
  • New! New material has been added on Mass Spectrometry.
  • New! Chapter 8 now has all updated Eo values for half-cells.
  • New! Problem sets have been expanded throughout the book, with approximately 100 new problems added to this edition.
  • The authors clearly explain the experimental and theoretical reasoning behind fundamental concepts before moving into a discussion of the concept itself. This narrative approach results in a greater understanding of the material.
  • A "Key Equations" section at the end of each chapter lists equations which the student should become familiar with.
  • The order of the chapters has been chosen with great care and allows instructors to choose alternate sequences.
  • The "Problems" at the end of each chapter have been organized according to subject matter and the more difficult problems are indicated with an asterisk. Answers to all problems are provided at the back of the book.
  • The text has a distinctly historical flavor. Historical vignettes and brief biographies of famous physical chemists help students see how theories have developed.
  • Pedagogical features help guide students through the often difficult material: unique chapter-opening previews, worked-out examples, marginal notes, unique end-of-chapter lists of key equations, two categories of problems (numerical problems divided by topic and essay questions), and suggested readings.

Table of Contents

Note: Each chapter ends with Key Equations, Problems, and Suggested Reading.

1. The Nature of Physical Chemistry and the Kinetic Theory of Gases

The Nature of Physical Chemistry
Some Concepts from Classical Mechanics
Systems, States, and Equilibrium
Thermal Equilibrium
Pressure and Boyle's Law
Biography: Robert Boyle
Gay-Lussac's (Charles's) Law
The Ideal Gas Thermometer
The Equation of State for an Ideal Gas
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Ideal Gases
The Barometric Distribution Law
The Maxwell Distribution of Molecular Speeds and Translational Energies
Real Gases
Equations of State
The Virial Equation

2. The First Law of Thermodynamics

Origins of the First Law
States and State Functions
Equilibrium States and Reversibility
Energy, Heat, and Work
Ideal Gas Relationships
Real Gases

3. The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

Biography: Rudolph Julius Emmanuel Clausius
The Carnot Cycle
Irreversible Processes
Molecular Interpretation of Entropy
The Calculation of Entropy Changes
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
Conditions for Equilibrium
The Gibbs Energy
Some Thermodynamic Relationships
The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation
Thermodynamic Limitations to Energy Conversion

4. Chemical Equilibrium

Biography: Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff
Chemical Equilibrium Involving Ideal Gases
Equilibrium in Nonideal Gaseous Systems
Chemical Equilibrium in Solution
Heterogeneous Equilibrium
Tests for Chemical Equilibrium
Shifts of Equilibrium at Constant Temperature
Coupling of Reactions
Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants
Pressure Dependence of Equilibrium Constants

5. Phases and Solutions

Phase Recognition
Vaporization and Vapor Pressure
Classification of Transitions in Single-Component Systems
Ideal Solutions: Raoult's and Henry's Laws
Partial Molar Quantities
The Chemical Potential
Thermodynamics of Solutions
The Colligative Properties

6. Phase Equilibria

Equilibrium Between Phases
One-Component Systems
Binary Systems Involving Vapor
Condensed Binary Systems
Thermal Analysis
Ternary Systems

7. Solution of Electrolytes

Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis
Biography: Michael Faraday
Molar Conductivity
Weak Electrolytes: The Arrhenius Theory
Biography: Svante August Arrhenius
Strong Electrolytes
Independent Migration of Ions
Transport Numbers
Ion Conductivities
Thermodynamics of Ions
Theories of Ions in Solution
Activity Coefficients
Ionic Equilibria
Ionization of Water
The Donnan Equilibrium

8. Electrochemical Cells

The Daniell Cell
Standard Electrode Potentials
Thermodynamics of Electrochemical Cells
Types of Electrochemical Cells
Applications of emf Measurements
Fuel Cells
Photogalvanic Cells
Electrode Processes

9. Chemical Kinetics I. The Basic Ideas

Rates of Consumption and Formation
Rate of Reaction
Empirical Rate Equations
Analysis of Kinetic Results
Techniques for Very Fast Reactions
Influence of Temperature on Reaction Rates
The Arrhenius Equation
Potential-Energy Surfaces
The Preexponential Factor
Biography: Henry Eyring
Reactions in Solution
Reaction Dynamics

10. Chemical Kinetics II. Composite Mechanisms

Evidence for a Composite Mechanism
Types of Composite Reactions
Rate Equations for Composite Mechanisms
Rate Constants, Rate Coefficients, and Equilibrium Constants
Free-Radical Reactions
Photochemical Reactions
Radiation-Chemical Reactions
Reactions in Solution: Some Special Features

11. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure

Electromagnetic Radiation and the Old Quantum Theory
Bohr's Atomic Theory
The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics
Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics
Quantum-Mechanical Postulates
Quantum Mechanics of Some Simple Systems
Quantum Mechanics of Hydrogenlike Atoms
Physical Significance of the Orbital Quantum Numbers
Angular Momentum and Magnetic Moment
The Rigid Linear Rotor
Spin Quantum Numbers
Many-Electron Atoms
Approximate Methods in Quantum Mechanics

12. The Chemical Bond

Biography: Gilbert Newton Lewis
The Hydrogen Molecular-Ion, H+2
The Hydrogen Molecule
Valence-Bond Theory for More Complex Molecules
Symmetry in Chemistry
Molecular Orbitals
Appendix: Character Tables

13. Foundations of Chemical Spectroscopy

Emission and Absorption Spectra
Atomic Spectra
Biography: Gerhard Herzberg
Pure Rotational Spectra of Molecules
Vibrational-Rotational Spectra of Molecules
Raman Spectra
Electronic Spectra of Molecules
Transition Probabilities
Appendix: Symmetry Species Corresponding to Infrared and Raman Spectra

14. Some Modern Applications of Spectroscopy

Laser Spectroscopy
Spectral Line Widths
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Mossbauer Spectroscopy
Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
Chiroptical Methods
Mass Spectrometry

15. Molecular Statistics

Forms of Molecular Energy
Biography: Ludwig Boltzmann
Statistical Mechanics
The Partition Function
Thermodynamic Quantities from Partition Functions
The Partition Function for Some Special Cases
The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Gibbs Energy Functions
The Calculation of Equilibrium Constants
Transition-State Theory
The Canonical Ensemble
Appendix: Some Definite Integrals Often Used in Statistical Mechanics

16. The Solid State

Crystal Forms and Crystal Lattices
X-Ray Crystallography
Experimental Methods
Theories of Solids
Electrical Conductivity in Solids
Statistical Thermodynamics of Crystals: Theories of Heat Capacities
Optical Properties of Solids

17. The Liquid State

Liquids Compared with Dense Gases
Liquids Compared with Solids
Intermolecular Forces
Theories and Models of Liquids
Water, the Incomparable Liquid

18. Surface Chemistry and Colloids

Adsorption Isotherms
Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Adsorption
Chemical Reactions on Surfaces
Surface Heterogeneity
The Structure of Solid Surfaces and of Adsorbed Layers
Surface Tension and Capillarity
Liquid Films on Surfaces
Biography: Agnes Pockels
Solid-Liquid Interfaces
Colloidal Systems

19. Transport Properties

Electrokinetic Effects

20. Macromolecules

Mechanisms of Polymerization
Kinetics of Polymerization
The Sizes of Macromolecules
Molecular Sizes and Shapes
The Microstructure of Polymer Chains
Biography: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
The Shapes of Polymer Chains
Physical Properties of Solid Polymers

Appendix A Units, Quantities, and Symbols: The SI/IUPAC Recommendations
Appendix B Physical Constants
Appendix C Some Mathematical Relationships
Appendix D Standard Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation
Appendix E Character Tables for Some Important Symmetry Groups in Chemistry

Answers to Problems

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Other Editions for Physical Chemistry

Cover of Physical Chemistry - With CD 4th edition