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As we have entered the twenty-first century, we have seen both dramatic developments affecting policing while, ironically, endemic problems continue to resurface in the police community relationship. Without question, the most notable developments have been related to new and emerging technologies. The growth of networking, more sophisticated, yet easy-to-use software, and the greater capacity of computers to process information at lower costs have all been embraced by law enforcement. Crime mapping and more sophisticated crime analysis led to the development of the COMPSTAT process, which is a philosophy of accountability and responsive to crime problems within a community. The development of intranets within police organizations have made information processing, hence problem solving, more efficacious. The development of more functional police web pages have opened the doors to new levels of police-citizen communications through not only the provision of information but also the ability to report crime online, obtain copies of police reports, and conduct other e-commerce transactions that serve the community in important new virtual ways.
Despite the growth of the exciting new technological developments that promise improvements in police service delivery and communications, there are persistent problems within the police community relationship that seem to never be resolved. Perhaps the most noteworthy deals with racial profiling. The persistent conflict between the police and minority communities continues to boil despite ongoing creative efforts to resolve problems. While progress has clearly been made in police-minority relations, there is a significant amount of work ahead.
Other changes occurring include a renewed emphasis in ethics and integrity issues following a series of high-profile police misconduct cases in New York and Los Angeles. The changing face of the United States following the 2000 census, the nine-year crime rate drop-which will be starting to sputter-and changes in the character of crime are all changing issues that are important in the police community relationship. All of these factors, along with new research findings in policing, are incorporated into this new edition.
Many people have helped me in the preparation of this book as well as previous editions. I would particularly like to thank again my friend Rick Holden at Central Missouri State University for his insights, thoughtful ideas, and friendship during our various travels coast-to-coast. Similarly, thanks also go to Merle Manzi of S,M,&C Sciences, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida, for his friendship, humor, and ideas, whether we were sitting in a stoic British pub or a less-than-stoic bar in Thailand. And a special thanks to my dear friend Andra Bannister of Wichita State University for her help, candid feedback, humor, and collusion on various projects and explorations covering four continents and Italian restaurants from Casablanca to Bangkok. Andi, you know I can always count on you. My thanks also go to reviewers James F. Albrecht (John Jay College of Criminal Justice), Francis Schreiner (Mansfield University of Pennsylvania), and Robert Taylor (University of North Texas) for their time and input.
I dedicate this book to my late parents, Donald and Alta Carter, who provided more support, encouragement, guidance, and praise than a person could ask for. I was blessed with extraordinary and loving parents who afforded me the opportunity to grow up in a "Leave It to Beaver" household. I miss them both dearly. For my children, I strive to give as much guidance and to be as good a role model as my parents were to me. Finally, thanks go to my wife, Karen, and my children Hilary, Jeremy, and Lauren. You all know how special you are to me and how I depend on you. My thanks and love to you all.
David L. Carter
Carter, David L : Michigan State University
2. The Concept of Community Alliance.
3. Community Policing: Milestones and Fundamentals.
4. Ethics and the Police.
II. THE PARADOX OF POLICING.
5. The Role Dilemma of the Police.
6. Role and Professionalism.
7. Role and Police Discretion.
8. The Self-Image of the Police Officer.
9. The Public Image of the Police.
III. PERSISTENT PROBLEMS.
10. Perceptions, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values.
11. Police, Demography, and Minority Issues.
12. Violence, Collective Behavior, and Deadly Force.
13. Complaints and the Police.
IV. SPECIAL ISSUES.
14. Issues Related to Special Populations.
15. Policing and the Political Environment.
16. The Media.
17. A Look at the Future.
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