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Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims

Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims - 4th edition

ISBN13: 978-0199856671

Cover of Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims 4TH 13 (ISBN 978-0199856671)
ISBN13: 978-0199856671
ISBN10: 0199856672
Edition: 4TH 13
Copyright: 2013
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Published: 2013
International: No
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Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims - 4TH 13 edition

ISBN13: 978-0199856671

Lewis Vaughn

ISBN13: 978-0199856671
ISBN10: 0199856672
Edition: 4TH 13
Copyright: 2013
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Published: 2013
International: No
Summary

The Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claimsexplores the essentials of critical reasoning, argumentation, logic, and argumentative essay writing while also incorporating important topics that most other texts leave out, such as ''inference to the best explanation,'' scientific reasoning, evidence and authority, visual reasoning, and obstacles to critical thinking.

The text integrates many pedagogical features, including hundreds of diverse exercises, examples, and illustrations; text boxes that apply critical thinking to student experience; step-by-step guidelines for evaluating claims, arguments, and explanations; a glossary of important terms; and many reminders, summaries, and review notes.

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

* Nine new ''Essays for Analysis,'' arranged in a pro/con format, on current, compelling topics including homosexuality, feminists and pornography, adultery, airport security screenings, women in Afghanistan, Islamic extremists and free speech, and fear of vaccines

* New discussions of legal reasoning, rhetorical ploys, informal fallacies, probability and statistics, and necessary and sufficient conditions

* New text boxes on the straw man fallacy, biased opinion polls, dishonest political discourse, and gut reactions and intuitions

* Clearer discussions of scientific conservatism in theory choice, the relationship between enumerative induction and statistical syllogisms, and informal fallacies

SUPPORT PACKAGE:

The text is supplemented by anInstructor's Manual and Test Bank in print and an Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank on CD.The Computerized Test Bank is a completely customizable bank of questions to aid in the creation of exams and quizzes. Both versions of the Instructor's Manual feature notes on using the text effectively, sample syllabi, links to websites of interest, lectures in PowerPoint

Table of Contents

*=New to this Edition
Preface
PART 1. BASICS
1. The Power of Critical Thinking
Why It Matters
How It Works
Claims and Reasons
Reasons and Arguments
Arguments in the Rough
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Writing Assignments
2. Obstacles to Critical Thinking
Psychological Obstacles
The Almighty Self
The Power of the Group
Philosophical Obstacles
Subjective Relativism
Social Relativism
Skepticism
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
3. Making Sense of Arguments
Argument Basics
Judging Arguments
Finding Missing Parts
Argument Patterns
Diagramming Arguments
Assessing Long Arguments
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 2. REASONS
4. Reasons for Belief and Doubt
When Claims Conflict
Experts and Evidence
Personal Experience
Impairment
Expectation
Innumeracy and Probability
Fooling Ourselves
Resisting Contrary Evidence
Looking for Confirming Evidence
Preferring Available Evidence
Claims in the News
Inside the News
Sorting Out the News
Advertising and Persuasion
Identification
Slogans
Misleading Comparisons
Weasel Words
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
5. Fallacies and Persuaders
Fallacies: Irrelevant Premises
Genetic Fallacy
Composition
Division
Appeal to the Person
Equivocation
Appeal to Popularity
Appeal to Tradition
Appeal to Ignorance
Appeal to Emotion
Red Herring
Straw Man
* Two Wrongs Make a Right
Fallacies: Unacceptable Premises
Begging the Question
False Dilemma
* Decision-Point Fallacy
Slippery Slope
Hasty Generalization
Faulty Analogy
* Persuaders: Rhetorical Moves
* Innuendo
* Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
* Stereotyping
* Ridicule
* Rhetorical Definitions
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 3. ARGUMENTS
6. Deductive Reasoning: Propositional Logic
Connectives and Truth Values
Conjunction
Disjunction
Negation
Conditional
Checking for Validity
Simple Arguments
Tricky Arguments
Streamlined Evaluation
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
7. Deductive Reasoning: Categorical Logic
Statements and Classes
Translations and Standard Form
Terms
Quantifiers
Diagramming Categorical Statements
Sizing Up Categorical Syllogisms
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
8. Inductive Reasoning
Enumerative Induction
Sample Size
Representativeness
Opinion Polls
Analogical Induction
Causal Arguments
Testing for Causes
Causal Confusions
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 4. EXPLANATIONS
9. Inference to the Best Explanation
Explanations and Inference
Theories and Consistency
Theories and Criteria
Testability
Fruitfulness
Scope
Simplicity
Conservatism
Telling Good Theories from Bad
A Doomed Flight
An Amazing Cure
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
10. Judging Scientific Theories
Science and Not Science
The Scientific Method
Testing Scientific Theories
Judging Scientific Theories
Copernicus Versus Ptolemy
Evolution Versus Creationism
Science and Weird Theories
Making Weird Mistakes
Leaping to the Weirdest Theory
Mixing What Seems with What Is
Misunderstanding the Possibilities
Judging Weird Theories
Crop Circles
Talking with the Dead
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
11. Critical Thinking in Morality and the Law
Moral Arguments
Moral Premises
Moral Theories
Evaluating Moral Theories
Two Important Theories
* Legal Reasoning
A Coherent Worldview
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
Appendix A: Essays for Evaluation
1. ''Death Penalty Discriminates Against Black Crime Victims,'' USA Today
2. ''Marine Parks,'' Bill Daly
* 3. ''A Feminist Defense of Pornography,'' Wendy McElroy
* 4. ''A Defense of Homosexuality,'' John Corvino
5. ''More Innocents Die When We Don't Have Capital Punishment,'' Dennis Prager
* 6. ''What's Wrong with Adultery?'' Bonnie Steinbock
* 7. ''A Pat-Down Is Better than a Blow-Up,'' Caroline Baum
8. ''The Cohabitation Epidemic,'' Neil Clark Warren
* 9. ''Not Being Vaccinated Is Not Acceptable,'' David Ropeik
* 10. ''Women and the Afghanistan Peace Process,'' Ann Jones
11. ''A Deviance from God's Norm,'' Richard Land
12. ''Marriage Still Evolving, as Ever,'' Buffalo News
13. ''Slouching Toward Chimeras,'' Jeremy Rifkin
* 14. ''Fighting Islamic Extremists Who Stifle Free Speech,'' Ayaan Hirsi and Daniel Huff
* 15. ''Is Sluttishness a Feminist Statement?'' Wendy Kaminer
16. ''Torture: Time for Congress to End the Debate,'' USA Today
17. ''Torture: Severe Interrogations Work,'' Trent Franks
18. ''Freedom of Expression: Protect Student Speech--Even 'Unwise' Bong Banner,'' USA Today
19. ''Freedom of Expression: Policy Reflects Common Sense,'' Kenneth W. Starr
* 20. ''It's Irresponsible to Spread Fear of Vaccine,'' USA Today
21. ''Flag Amendment: Flag Needs Protection,'' Dianne Feinstein
Appendix B: Answers to Exercises
Appendix C: Answers to Self-Assessment Quizzes
Appendix D: Critical Thinking and Writing
Notes
Glossary
Credits
Index
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