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Summary: This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles and techniques of radiographic imaging. The physics principles that are the foundation of radiography are explained clearly, with numerous illustrations, examples and solved problems to aid comprehension. Chapters are organized into six units: Creating the Beam, Protecting Patients and Personnel, Creating the Image, Analyzing the Image, Comparing Exposure Systems, and Special Imaging Systems. Specializ ...show moreed imaging modalities, such as mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography and computed radiography, are explained in individual chapters. ...show lessEdition/Copyright: 3RD 01
List of Tables
UNIT I: CREATING THE BEAM:
CHAPTER 1: BASIC MATHEMATICS, (Mary Ann Hovis), Arithmetic, Algebra, Units of Measurement
CHAPTER 2: RADIATION CONCEPTS, Matter and Energy, Atomic Theory, Types of Energy, Electromagnetic Spectrum, The Discovery of X-Rays, X-Ray Properties
CHAPTER 3: ELECTRICITY, Electrostatics, Electrodynamics, Series and parallel Circuits
CHAPTER 4: ELECTROMAGNETISM, Magnetism, Electromagnetism, Controlling Electrical Current, Rectification
CHAPTER 5: X-RAY EQUIPMENT, Types of X-Ray Equipment, Power for X-Ray Generation, A Basic X-Ray Circuit, Generators, Automatic Exposure Control
CHAPTER 6: THE X-RAY TUBE, The Cathode Assembly, The Anode Assembly, The Glass Envelope, Protective Housing, Off-Focus Radiation, Rating Charts and Cooling Curves, Recommendations for Extending Tube Life
CHAPTER 7: X-RAY PRODUCTION, Conditions, Target Interactions, Emission Spectrum
UNIT II: PROTECTING PATIENTS AND PERSONNEL:
CHAPTER 8: RADIATION PROTECTION CONCEPTS AND EQUIPMENT, The Basics of Radiation Protection Principles and Practice, Quantities and Units Relevant to Radiation Protection, Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation
CHAPTER 9: RADIATION PROTECTION PROCEDURES FOR PATIENTS AND PERSONNEL, Advisory Groups and Regulatory Agencies, Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, Protection of Personnel, Protection of Patient, Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy
CHAPTER 10: FILTRATION, Measurement, Types of Filtration, Effect on Output
CHAPTER 11: THE PRIME FACTORS, The Prime Factors, Milliamperage-Second (mAs), Kilovoltage (kVp), Distance
CHAPTER 12: X-RAY INTERACTIONS, X-Ray Interaction with Matter, Photoelectric Absorption, Coherent Scattering, Compton Scattering, Pair Production, Photo disintegration, Effect on Technical Factor Selection
CHAPTER 13: MINIMIZING PATIENT DOSE, Estimating Approximate Entrance Skin Exposure, Typical Entrance Skin Exposure, Reducing Patient Exposure with Communication, Reducing Patient Exposure with Positioning, Reducing Patient Exposure with Technical Factors, Discussing Radiation Risk Versus Benefit with Patients
UNIT III: CREATING THE IMAGE:
CHAPTER 14: VISION AND PERCEPTION, Image Perception, Controlling the Image in Space, Radiography as an Art Form
CHAPTER 15: BEAM RESTRICTION, Controlling Scatter, Beam Restrictors, Ancillary Devices
CHAPTER 16: THE PATIENT AS A BEAM EMITTER, Attenuation, The Human Body as an Attenuator, The Patient's Relationship to Image Quality
CHAPTER 17: THE PATHOLOGY PROBLEM, Pathology and Radiation Absorption, Increased Attenuation (Additive) Conditions, Decreased Attenuation (Destructive) Conditions
CHAPTER 18: THE GRID, Purpose of the Grid, Grid Construction, Grid Patterns, Grid Types, Grid Uses, Grid Selection/Conversions, Grid Performance Evaluation, Grid Errors, Other Scatter Reduction Methods
CHAPTER 19: RADIOGRAPHIC FILM, Construction, Latent Image Formation, Types of Film, The Duplication Process, The Subtraction Process, Film Storage and Handling, Film Identification
CHAPTER 20: IMAGE PROCESSING, Developing, Fixing, Archiving, Automatic Processing, Darkroom, Silver Recovery System
CHAPTER 21: SENSITOMETRY, Sensitometric Equipment, The D Log E Curve, Film Characteristics
CHAPTER 22: INTENSIFYING SCREENS, Construction, Phosphors, Characteristics, Cassettes and Holders, Care
CHAPTER 23: FILM/SCREEN COMBINATIONS, Emission Spectra, Characteristics, Selecting Film/Speed Combinations, Clinical Choices
UNIT IV: ANALYZING THE IMAGE
CHAPTER 24: ESTABLISHING IMAGING STANDARDS, Professional Imaging Standards, The Analytical Process, Acceptance Limits
CHAPTER 25: DENSITY, Assessing Density, Effects on Image Appearance, Factors Affecting Density
CHAPTER 26: CONTRAST, Assessing Contrast, Radiographic Contrast, Evaluation Contrast, Factors Affecting Contrast
CHAPTER 27: RECORDED DETAIL, Assessing Recorded Detail, Effects on Image Appearance, Factors Affecting Recorded Detail
CHAPTER 28: DISTORTION, Assessing Distortion, Factors Affecting Size Distortion, Factors Affecting Shape Distortion, Effect on Image Appearance
CHAPTER 29: THE ART OF FILM CRITIQUE, Implementing Imaging Standards, Identifying an Imaging Problem, An Effective Film Critique Method, Applying the Film Critique Method
CHAPTER 30: QUALITY CONTROL, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, Purchasing Equipment, Monitoring Equipment Performance, Ancillary Equipment, Repeat Film Studies, Troubleshooting
UNIT V: COMPARING EXPOSURE SYSTEMS:
CHAPTER 31: DEVELOPING EXPOSURE CHARTS, System Selection, Anatomically Programmed Radiography, Establishing a Technique Chart
CHAPTER 32: FIXED KILOVOLTAGE SYSTEMS, Principles of Fixed Kilovoltage Exposure Systems, Establishing a Fixed Kilovoltage Peak Technique Chart
CHAPTER 33: VARIABLE KILOVOLTAGE SYSTEMS, Principles of a Variable Kilovoltage Peak Exposure System, Establishing a Stepped Variable kVp System, The Mayo Clinic Variable kVp System, Establishing a Mayo Clinic Variable kVp chart
CHAPTER 34: OTHER EXPOSURE SYSTEMS, XVS Unit Step System, Bit System, Supertech TM Calculator Proportional Anatomy Systems,
CHAPTER 35: AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROLS, Ionization Chambers, Positioning Skills
CHAPTER 36: EXPOSURE CONVERSATION PROBLEMS, Standard conversation Relationships and Tables, Solving Complex Exposure Problems
UNIVT VI: SPECIAL IMAGING SYSTEMS:
CHAPTER 37: MOBILE RADIOGRAPHY, Special Patient Considerations, Special Radiation Protection Considerations, Types of Equipment, Automatic Exposure Control, Special Technical Factor Selection Considerations
CHAPTER 38: FLUOROSCOPY, Historical Development, Fluoroscopic Uses, Types of Equipment, Fluoroscopic X-Ray Tubes, Image Intensification Tubes, Fluoroscopic Generators, Image Quality, Viewing Systems, Recording the Fluoroscopic Image, Mobile Fluoroscopic Equipment, Radiation Protection During Fluoroscopy
CHAPTER 39: TOMOGRAPHY, The Tomographic Principle, Tomographic Quality, Types of Motion, Tomographic Procedures
CHAPTER 40: TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF MAMMOGRAPHY (Eugene D. Frank), Historical Development, Generator Characteristics, X-Ray Tube, Accessories, Resolution, Quality Control
CHAPTER 41: VASCULAR IMAGING EQUIPMENT (Joseph R. Bettengale and Donna C. Davis), Generators, X-Ray Tubes, Angiographic Tables, Image Recording Devices, Contrast Medium Injection Devices, Quality Control
CHAPTER 42: DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING, The Computer, Image Processing, Digital Image Quality, Computed Radiography and Fluoroscopy, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS), Laser Film Printers
CHAPTER 43: DIGITAL IMAGING
CHAPTER 44: COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, The Invention of Computed Tomography, Gantry, Table, X-Ray Tubes, Detectors, Computer, Display Console, CT Numbers (Hounsfield Units), Image Reconstruction, Image Quality
CHAPTER 45: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, The Physics of Magnetic Resonance, Production of the Magnetic Resonance Image, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment, Image Quality, Safety and Biological Hazards
Appendix A: On a New Kind of Rays (W.C. Rontgen)
Appendix B: Agfa's Troubleshooting the Radiographic System: Symptoms and Possible Causes
Appendix C: Du Pont Bit System
Appendix D: Basic Exposure Table: Siemens Point System
Appendix E: Answers to Case Studies
Appendix F: Epigraph Sources and Credits
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