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Psychology of Learning and Behavior

Psychology of Learning and Behavior - 5th edition

ISBN13: 978-0393975918

Cover of Psychology of Learning and Behavior 5TH 02 (ISBN 978-0393975918)
ISBN13: 978-0393975918
ISBN10: 0393975916
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 5TH 02
Publisher: W.W. Norton & Co.
Published: 2002
International: No
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Psychology of Learning and Behavior - 5TH 02 edition

ISBN13: 978-0393975918

Barry Schwartz, Steven J. Robbins and Edward A. Wasserman

ISBN13: 978-0393975918
ISBN10: 0393975916
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 5TH 02
Publisher: W.W. Norton & Co.

Published: 2002
International: No
Summary

Edward Wasserman, Stuit Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Iowa, joins Barry Schwartz and Steven Robbins for the Fifth Edition. Professor Wasserman has extensive experience as both a writer and researcher in the field of learning and comparative cognition and has taught the learning course at the University of Iowa for over twenty-five years.

New Emphasis on Comparative Cognition

In response to recent activity in comparative cognition, Part III, "Complex Learning Processes," has been reorganized and dramatically expanded to include three new chapters: Chapter 13, "Behavior and Conceptualization," Chapter 14, "Memory and Cognition," and Chapter 15, "Human Learning and Cognition." In addition to discussing memory, conceptualization, timing, counting, and navigation, these chapters treat the study of human cognition as it has been informed by research in animal behavior.

Enriched Treatment of Neuroscience and the Neural Basis of Learning

The neural foundations of learning were first introduced in the Fourth Edition with significant discussions of the neural mechanisms that produce habituation and a major new discussion of Kandel's neural model of the conditioning process. The Fifth Edition builds on this exciting new emphasis with the inclusion of new material on comparative cognition, the biological constraints of learning, and a new feature box on neuroscience that appears in most chapters.

Real-World Examples

Real-world examples are woven throughout the text, and each chapter contains at least two "Applying the Principles" boxes that demonstrate the impact of behavior theory and research on our everyday lives.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1

HUMAN NATURE, SCIENCE, AND BEHAVIOR THEORY UNDERSTANDING
UNDERSTANDING
UNDERSTANDING AND SCIENCE
Causes, Generalizations, and Laws
EXPERIMENTATION: THE TOOL OF SCIENCE
SCIENCE AND HUMAN NATURE
PSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR THEORY, AND LEARNING
PHILOSOPHICAL BACKGROUND OF BEHAVIOR THEORY
Descartes and Hobbes: Man as Machine Associationism
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF BEHAVIOR THEORY
Darwin and Evolution
THE EMERGENCE OF BEHAVIOR THEORY
Single Event Learning: Habituation
Event-Event Learning: Pavlovian Conditioning
Behavior-Event Learning: Operant Conditioning
LEARNING ABOUT HUMANS BY STUDYING ANIMALS

SUMMARY

PART I

EVENT LEARNING: HABITUATION AND PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING

CHAPTER 2

SINGLE EVENT LEARNING: HABITUATION
SEPARATING HABITUATION FROM SENSORY ADAPTATION OR MOTOR FATIGUE
Evidence for a Learning Explanation
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: RESPONSE RECOVERY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
CONDITIONS THAT PRODUCE HABITUATION
MECHANISMS OF HABITUATION
DUAL-PROCESS THEORIES
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING
A MEMORY THEORY OF HABITUATION

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 3

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING: BASIC PHENOMENA
THE CLASSIC CONDITIONING EXPERIMENT
ACQUISITION AND EXTINCTION
THE SCOPE OF PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING RESEARCH
Eyeblink Conditioning
Conditioned Fear
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING
The Neural Mechanisms of Eyeblink Conditioning
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: CAUSES AND TREATMENTS OF PHOBIA
Conditioned Keypecking
Taste Aversion Learning
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: FOOD AVERSIONS IN CANCER PATIENTS RECEIVING CHEMOTHERAPY
THE NEED FOR CONTROL PROCEDURES IN STUDIES OF PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING
TEMPORAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE CS AND THE US
Delay Conditioning
Simultaneous Conditioning
Temporal Conditioning
Backward Conditioning
OTHER VARIABLES AFFECTING PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING
The CS and the US
Qualitative Relations between CS and US
CONSTRAINTS ON LEARNING

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 4

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING: CAUSAL FACTORS
NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING
Contingency
Locating the US in Time
Informativeness, Redundancy, and Blocking
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: PREDICTIVENESS, FEAR, AND ANXIETY
PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING AND INHIBITION
Inhibition in the Nervous System
Conditioned Inhibition of Behavior
Detecting Inhibition
External Inhibition and Disinhibition
Indirect Measures of Inhibition
Direct Measures of Inhibition
CONDITIONS PRODUCING INHIBITION
Extinction
Conditioned Inhibition Training
Negative Contingency Training
Inhibition of Delay
Discrimination and Generalization
Excitatory and Inhibitory Generalization Gradients
Backward Conditioning
NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR INHIBITION
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: EXPERIMENTAL NEUROSIS

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 5

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING: EXPLANATIONS THE RESCORLA-WAGNER THEORY
Rescorla-Wagner Theory and Compound Stimuli
Rescorla-Wagner Theory and Contingency
Rescorla-Wagner Theory and Inhibition
A Surprising Prediction
CONDITIONING AND CHANGES IN CS EFFECTIVENESS
Latent Inhibition
Learned Irrelevance
Another Look at Blocking
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING: THE NEURAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING CHANGES IN CS PROCESSING
Surprise and CS Salience
PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE RESCORLA-WAGNER THEORY REHEARSAL AND CONDITIONING
Blocking
EFFECTS OF SINGLE EVENT EXPOSURE ON CONDITIONING CS
Preexposure (Latent Inhibition)
US Preexposure
THEORIES OF EXTINCTION

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 6

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING: STORAGE AND RESPONSE OUTPUT
WHAT IS LEARNED IN CONDITIONING?
Manipulating Representations
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING: A NEURAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN URS AND CRS
CONDITIONED INHIBITION: WHAT IS LEARNED?
THE PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR)
THE ADAPTIVE FUNCTION OF THE CONDITIONED RESPONSE
CRs THAT OPPOSE Urs
OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY
CHALLENGES TO THE CONDITIONED OPPONENT MODEL
ROLE OF CONDITIONING IN HUMAN DRUG ABUSE
USING CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES TO TREAT ADDICTION
Extinction
Counterconditioning
Competing Response Training
ASSOCIATION: THE PROCESS UNIFYING DIVERSE CRs

SUMMARY

PART II

BEHAVIOR-EVENT LEARNING: OPERANT CONDITIONING

CHAPTER 7

Operant Conditioning: Basic Phenomena
THE LAW OF EFFECT THE BEHAVIOR-CONSEQUENCE RELATION SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
Measuring the Operant Response
The Conditioning Chamber
What Is Operant Behavior?
Which Operant Behaviors Should Be Studied?
CONDITIONING AND EXTINCTION
CREATING BEHAVIORAL UNITS
The Form of the Behavioral Unit
CONSTRAINED OPERANT-REINFORCER LEARNING
The Dancing Chicken
The Miserly Raccoon
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: SHAPING NEW BEHAVIOR
THE NATURE OF REINFORCEMENT
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: ELIMINATING BEHAVIOR
Reinforcer Relativity
CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT
Establishing a Conditioned Reinforcer-Predictiveness
Observing Responses
Token Reinforcers
THE FUNCTIONS OF CONDITIONED REINFORCERS
APPLICATIONS OF TOKEN REINFORCEMENT
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: TOKEN REINFORCEMENT IN EDUCATION
NEGATIVE SIDE EFFECTS OF REINFORCEMENT?

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 8

OPERANT CONDITIONING: CAUSAL FACTORS AND EXPLANATIONS
WHAT PRODUCES CONDITIONING: CONTIGUITY OR CONTINGENCY?
Evidence for Contiguity
Superstition
Another Look at Superstition
Another Look at Contiguity and Conditioning
CONTINGENCY LEARNING
Contingency Learning in Infants
Learned helplessness
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: LEARNED HELPLESSNESS AND DEPRESSION
CONTINGENCY LEARNING IN GENERAL
How Do Animals Form Contingency Judgments?
OPERANT CONDITIONING: WHAT IS LEARNED?
Response-Reinforcer Learning
Stimulus-Reinforcer Learning
Stimulus-Response Associations

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 9

AVERSIVE CONTROL OF BEHAVIOR: PUNISHMENT AND AVOIDANCE
CONDITIONED SUPPRESSION
PUNISHMENT
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT
Does Punishment Work?
Maximizing the Effects of Punishment
Punishment and General Suppression
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: EFFECTIVENESS OF PUNISHMENT
Negativity of Punishment
AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR
Discrete-Trial Signaled Avoidance
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING:THE NEURAL MECHANISMS OF AVOIDANCE LEARNING
Shock Postponement
THEORIES OF AVERSIVE CONTROL
Two-Factor Theory
Operant Theory
Cognitive Theory
Biological Theory
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: ELIMINATING AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 10

The Maintenance of Behavior: Intermittent Reinforcement, Choice, and Economics
SCHEDULES OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT
Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedules
Variable-Interval (VI) Schedules
Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedules
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedules
CAN SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT MAINTAIN BEHAVIOR?
PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Fixed Ratios
Variable Ratios
Variable Intervals
Fixed Intervals
THE STUDY OF CHOICE: CONCURRENT SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
The Matching Law
The Matching Law in Operation
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES:PROCRASTINATION
Matching and Maximizing
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING: ELECTRICAL BRAIN STIMULATION CAN BE USEDTO STUDY CHOICE BEHAVIOR AND MATCHING
Choice and Foraging
OPERANT BEHAVIOR AND ECONOMICS
The Concept of Demand
Demand and Income
Substitutability of Commodities
Open and Closed Economic Systems

SUMMARY

PART III

COMPLEX LEARNING PROCESSES

CHAPTER 11

STIMULUS CONTROL OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR
PERVASIVENESS OF STIMULUS CONTROL PHENOMENA
DISCRIMINATION AND GENERALIZATION
PROCEDURES FOR STUDYING STIMULUS CONTROL
THE PROCESS OF DISCRIMINATION
Predictiveness and Redundancy
Discrimination Training as a Stimulus Selector
Discrimination Training and Incidental Stimuli
Transfer of Training
THE PROCESS OF GENERALIZATION: EXCITATION AND INHIBITION
The Peak Shift
Transposition and the Nature of Perceptual Judgment
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING: THE NEURAL MECHANISMS OF AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION LEARNING
COMPOUND STIMULUS CONTROL
Configural Stimulus Control
Positive Patterning
Negative Patterning
Biconditional Discrimination

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 12

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PAVLOVIAN AND OPERANT CONDITIONING DISTINGUISHING PAVLOVIAN AND OPERANT CONDITIONING
Operant Conditioning of Reflexive Responses
Pavlovian Conditioning of Voluntary Behavior
The Omission Procedure
PAVLOVIAN CONTINGENCIES AND OPERANT BEHAVIOR
Types of Pavlovian-Operant Combinations
Studies of Pavlovian Contingencies and Operant Behavior
PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONED STATES AS INFORMATION
PAVLOVIAN AND OPERANT CONDITIONING: ONE UNDERLYING PROCESS?
Competition between Operant Responses and Pavlovian CSs
Occasion Setting in Pavlovian and Operant Conditioning

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 13

BEHAVIOR AND CONCEPTUALIZATION
DISCRIMINATION AND GENERALIZATION IN A NEW LIGHT
FROM DISCRIMINATION AND GENERALIZATION TO CONCEPTUALIZATION
NATURAL CONCEPTS
Presence versus absence of objects from natural concepts
Discriminating objects in multiple natural concepts
CONCEPTUALIZATION VIA PRIMARY OR SECONDARY GENERALIZATION
Nonsimilarity-based conceptualization by pigeons
Joint category learning by pigeons
ABSTRACT CONCEPTS
Matching-to-sample by pigeons
Oddity learning by pigeons
Same-different learning by pigeons

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 14

MEMORY AND COGNITION
REMEMBERING AND LANGUAGE
REMEMBERING AND KNOWING
DELAYED MATCHING-TO-SAMPLE
Basic methods and findings
Trace theory
Complexity and flexibility of memory
MEMORY LOSS?
SELECTIVE ATTENTION
SPATIAL MEMORY
NEUROSCIENCE AND LEARNING:THE NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SPATIAL LEARNING
CONTROL BY TIME
CONTROL BY NUMBER

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 15

HUMAN LEARNING AND COGNITION: LEARNING ABOUT CAUSES
CONDITIONING AND CAUSATION CAUSALITY DETECTION
David Hume and Causality
Causation as a psychological impression
Conditions of causation
A mechanical model of causality perception
Factors that affect causal judgments
Comparative psychology of causal association
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HUMAN CAUSALITY DETECTION
Contingency
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: INHIBITION IN HUMAN CONTINGENCY JUDGMENTS
Reconciling Disparate Results
Temporal contiguity
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: THE ILLUSION OF CONTROL
Cue competition
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: BLOCKING IN HUMAN LEARNING
LEARNING AND COGNITION: A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES: WHY PEOPLE BELIEVE WEIRD THINGS

SUMMARY

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