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Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach / With CD-ROM

Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach / With CD-ROM - 4th edition

Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach / With CD-ROM - 4th edition

ISBN13: 9780205324439

ISBN10: 0205324436

Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach / With CD-ROM by Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe - ISBN 9780205324439
Edition: 4TH 00
Copyright: 2000
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Published: 2000
International: No
Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach / With CD-ROM by Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe - ISBN 9780205324439

ISBN13: 9780205324439

ISBN10: 0205324436

Edition: 4TH 00
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Other Editions of Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach / With CD-ROM


This top-selling public speaking text continues to be an excellent choice for introductory public speaking courses in both 2- and 4-year colleges and universities. Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach serves as a foundation in speechmaking as it guides students through every step of the process and narrows the gap between the classroom and the real world.

Its distinctive and popular audience-centered approach emphasizes the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point along the way, with marginal icons highlighting passages that address audience-related issues. Numerous examples, excerpts, and sample speeches support the instruction, while recap boxes and end-of-chapter activities reinforce and extend the lessons of the text.

Designed for courses in Public Speaking.

  • The text's audience-centered model, introduced in Chapter 2, captures both the process of focusing on the audience and the step-by-step sequence of speech preparation. Miniature versions of the model, in the form of marginal icons, highlight audience-centered discussions and advice throughout.
  • The emphasis on audience diversity throughout the text includes examples in every chapter as well as special sections that stress an appreciation for the rich diversity within audiences.
  • A full chapter on ethics reviews the tradition of free speech in a democratic society, introducing students to issues such as plagiarism, the legitimate use of evidence and reasoning, and the need for tolerance. Additionally, discussion of ethical issues is integrated throughout the text, as appropriate.
  • ''Ethical Questions'' at the end of each chapter spark class discussions about ethical and free speech issues and deepen students' understanding of the ethical issues surrounding public speaking.
  • Appendix A, ''The Classical Tradition of Rhetoric'' by Thomas R. Burkholder, acknowledges the contemporary public speaker's debt to classical oratory.
  • Technology Advantage:

The ''Speaker's Homepage'' offers students hands-on tips, activities, and Internet links to find and effectively use Internet material that relates to the concepts covered in each chapter.
An accompanying Companion Website ( features links to related Internet sites, updates to links in the book, the ''virtual classroom'' bulletin board for students and instructors, speechmaking exercises and tips related to the audience-centered model, and an online study guide.

  • Expanded coverage of using the Internet for speech research emphasizes the importance of evaluating websites.
  • Expanded material on overcoming speech anxiety (Ch. 2) comes earlier in the chapter and offers concrete suggestions for students to follow.
  • Expanded and updated discussions of technology as both a research and presentation tool help students effectively and appropriately use technology as an aid to public speaking.
  • ''Using Media and Technology'' activities now discuss the Internet and other forms of technology to broaden students' exposure.
  • New classic and contemporary speaking examples throughout include student speeches, news items relating to politics, science, and the arts, excerpts from great speeches, and speeches in the appendix.
  • Expanded and clarified discussion of reasoning now includes a student example of argument building.
  • A refined discussion of the goals of persuasive speaking, additional information about persuading a target audience, and new material on how to motivate speakers to respond to a persuasive message help students better master the strategies of persuasion.
  • Appendix C, ''Preparing Visual Aids for Presentation,'' has been revised to reflect the technology changes in presentation software packages. It contains specific instructions for preparing presentation visuals, including storyboards, media selection, layout and design, type and color selection, and the use of electronic design packages.

Author Bio

Beebe, Steven A. : Southwest Texas State University

Beebe, Susan J. : Southwest Texas State University

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

All chapters include ''Summary.''

1. Introduction to Public Speaking.
Why Study Public Speaking?
Empowerment. Employment.
Public Speaking and Conversation.
Public Speaking Is More Planned. Public Speaking Is More Formal. The Roles of Public Speakers and Audiences Are More Clearly Defined.
The Communication Process.
Communication as Action. Communication as Interaction. Communication as Transaction.
The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking.
Speaker's Homepage: The Power of the Internet.
Public Speaking and Diversity.

2. Overview of the Speechmaking Process.
Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker.
Understanding Your Nervousness. Building Your Confidence.
Speaker's Homepage: Resources to Help Manage Your Speaking Anxiety.
Preparing Your First Speech: An Overview of the Speechmaking Process.
Consider Your Audience. Select and Narrow Your Topic. Determine Your Purpose. Develop Your Central Idea. Generate the Main Ideas. Gather Verbal and Visual Supporting Material. Organize Your Speech. Rehearse Your Speech. Deliver Your Speech.

3. Ethics and Free Speech.
Speaking Freely.
Speaking Ethically.
Have a Clear, Responsible Goal. Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning. Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences. Be Honest. Avoid Plagiarism.
Speaker's Homepage: Ethics and Free Speech.
Listening Ethically.
Communicate Your Expectation and Feedback: Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences. Listen Critically.

4. Listening.
Stages in Listening.
Selecting. Attending. Understanding. Remembering.
Barriers to Effective Listening.
Information Overload. Personal Concerns. Outside Distractions. Prejudice. Watching Speech Rate and Thought Rate Differences.
Becoming a Better Listener.
Adapt to the Speaker's Delivery. Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears. Avoid Overreacting to a Message. Avoid Jumping to Conclusions. Be a Selfish Listener. Listen for Major Ideas. Identifying Your Listening Goal. Practice Listening. Become an Active Listener.
Improving Your Note-Taking Skills.
Listening and Critical Thinking.
Speaker's Homepage: Practicing Your Critical Listening Skills.
Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches.
Giving Feedback to Others. Giving Feedback to Yourself.

5. Analyzing Your Audience.
Becoming an Audience-Centered Speaker.
What Is Audience Analysis?
Analyzing Your Audience Before You Speak.
Demographic Analysis. Attitudinal Analysis. Environmental Analysis. Gathering Information about Your Audience.
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet to Gather Information about Your Audience.
Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak.
Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues. Responding to Nonverbal Cues .
Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak.
Nonverbal Responses. Verbal Responses. Survey Responses. Behavioral Responses.

6. Developing Your Speech.
Select and Narrow Your Topic.
Guidelines for Selecting a Topic. Strategies for Selecting a Topic.
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Prime Your Creative Pump for a Speech Topic.
Narrowing the Topic.
Determine Your Purpose.
General Purpose. Specific Purpose.
Develop Your Central Idea.
A Complete Declarative Statement. Specific Language. A Single Idea. An Audience-Centered Idea.
Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas.
Generating Your Main Ideas. Previewing Your Main Ideas.
Meanwhile, Back at the Computer ... .

7. Gathering Supporting Materials.
Personal Knowledge and Experience.
The Internet.
The World Wide Web. Accessing the Web. Evaluating Web Resources.
Speaker's Homepage: Evaluating Websites.
Library Resources.
Books. Periodicals. Newspapers. Full-Text Databases. Newspapers. Reference Resources. Government Documents. Special Services.
Determine the Purpose of the Interview. Setting Up the Interview. Planning the Interview. Conducting the Interview. Following Up the Interview.
Materials from Special-Interest Groups and Organizations.
Research Strategies.
Develop a Preliminary Bibliography. Locate Resources. Consider the Potential Usefulness of Resources. Take Notes. Identify Possible Visual Aids.

8. Supporting Your Speech.
Brief Illustrations. Extended Illustrations. Hypothetical Illustrations. Using Illustrations Effectively.
Descriptions and Explanations.
Describing. Explaining How. Explaining Why. Using Descriptions and Explanations Effectively.
Definition by Classification. Operational Definitions. Using Definitions Effectively.
Literal Analogies. Figurative Analogies. Using Analogies Effectively.
Using Statistics as Support. Using Statistics Effectively.
Expert Testimony. Lay Testimony. Literary Quotations. Using Opinions Effectively.
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet to Find Interesting Supporting Material.
Selecting the Best Supporting Material.

9. Organizing Your Speech.
Organizing Your Main Ideas.
Ordering Ideas Chronologically. Organizing Ideas Topically. Arranging Ideas Spatially. Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect. Organizing Ideas by Problem and Solution. Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization.
Speaker's Homepage: Internet Resources to Help You Organize Your Speech.
Subdividing Your Main Ideas.
Integrating Your Supporting Material.
Organizing Your Supporting Material.
Primacy or Recency. Specificity. Complexity. ''Soft'' to ''Hard'' Evidence.
Developing Signposts.
Transitions. Previews. Summaries.
Supplementing Signposts with Visual Aids.

10. Introducing and Concluding Your Speech.
Purposes of Introductions.
Get the Audience's Attention. Introduce the Subject. Give the Audience a Reason to Listen. Establish Your Credibility. Preview Your Main Ideas.
Effective Introductions.
Illustrations or Anecdotes. Startling Facts or Statistics. Quotations. Humor. Questions. References to Historical Events. References to Recent Events. Personal References. References to the Occasion. References to Preceding Speeches.
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Find an Attention-Catching Introduction.
Purposes of Conclusions.
Summarize the Speech. Reemphasize the Central Idea in a Memorable Way. Motivate the Audience to Respond. Provide Closure.
Effective Conclusions.
Methods Also Used for Introductions. References to the Introduction.
Inspirational Appeals or Challenges.

11. Outlining Your Speech.
Preparation Outline.
Developing a Preparation Outline. Sample Preparation Outline.
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Improve Your Outlining Skill.
Delivery Outline.
Developing a Delivery Outline. Sample Delivery Outline. Speaking Notes.

12. Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style.
Oral versus Written Language Style.
Oral Style Is More Personal. Oral Style Is Less Formal. Oral Style Is More Repetitious.
Using Words Effectively.
Use Concrete Words. Use Unbiased Words. Use Vivid Words. Use Simple Words. Use Words Correctly.
Crafting Memorable Word Structures.
Creating Figurative Images. Creating Drama. Creating Cadence.
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Polish Your Spoken Prose.
Analyzing a Memorable Word Structure.
Tips for Using Language Effectively.

13. Delivering Your Speech.
Rehearsing Your Speech.
Importance of Delivery.
The Role of Nonverbal Behavior in Delivery. Communicating Emotions and Attitudes. Audiences Believe What They See.
Methods of Delivery.
Manuscript Reading. Memorized Speaking. Impromptu Speaking. Extemporaneous Speaking.
Characteristics of Effective Delivery.
Body Language. Eye Contact. Facial Expression. Vocal Delivery. Personal Appearance.
Audience Diversity and Delivery.
Speaker's Homepage: Net Resources to Help You Evaluate Speaker Delivery.
Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips.
Delivering Your Speech.
Adapting Your Speech Delivery for Television.

14. Visual Aids.
Why Use Visual Aids?
Types of Visual Aids.
Three-Dimensional Visual Aids. Two-Dimensional Visual Aids. Audiovisual Aids.
Guidelines for Developing Visual Aids.
Make Them Easy To See. Keep Them Simple. Select the Right Visual Aids. Prepare Polished Visual Aids.
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet as a Source for Visuals for Your Speech.
Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Visual Aids.
Guidelines for Using Visual Aids.
Rehearse with Your Visual Aids. Have Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not Your Visual Aids. Explain Your Visual Aids. Do Not Pass Objects among Your Audience. Use Animals with Caution. Use Handouts Effectively. Time Your Visuals to Control Your Audience's Attention. Use Technology Effectively. Remember Murphy's Law.

15. Speaking to Inform.
Goals of Informative Speaking.
Types of Informative Speeches.
Speeches about Objects. Speeches about Procedures. Speeches about People. Speeches about Events. Speeches about Ideas.
Strategies for Informing Your Listeners.
Strategies to Explain New Ideas. Strategies to Clarify Complex Processes. Strategies to Change Common Misconceptions.
Speaker's Homepage: What's Happening Now: Finding Late-Breaking News and Information for Your Speech.
Making Your Informative Speech Memorable.
Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners. Establish a Motive for Your Audience to Listen to You. Build in Redundancy. Use Simple Ideas Rather than Complex Ones. Reinforce Key Ideas Verbally. Reinforce Key Ideas Nonverbally. Pace Your Information Flow. Relate New Information to Old. Create Memorable Visual Aids.

16. Principles of Persuasive Speaking.
What Is Persuasion?
Motivating Listeners.
Using Dissonance to Motivate Listeners. Using Needs to Motivate Listeners. Using Positive Motivation. Using Negative Motivation.
Developing Your Persuasive Speech.
Choosing a Persuasive Speech Topic. Developing Your Purpose.
Putting Persuasive Principles into Practice.
Speaker's Homepage: Finding Out about Congressional Legislation for Persuasive Speeches.

17. Strategies for Speaking Persuasively.
Establishing Credibility.
Enhancing Your Credibility.
Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade.
Understanding Types of Reasoning. Persuading the Diverse Audience. Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence. Avoiding Faculty Reasoning: Ethical Issues.
Using Emotion to Persuade.
Speaker's Homepage: Information Triage -- Identifying Reasoning Fallacies.
Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade. Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues.
Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas.
Persuading the Receptive Audience. Persuading the Neutral Audience. Persuading the Unreceptive Audience.
Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages.
Problem -- Solution. Refutation. Cause and Effect. The Motivated Sequence.

18. Special-Occasion Speaking.
Public Speaking in the Workplace.
Reports. Public-Relations Speeches.
Ceremonial Speaking.
Introductions. Toasts.
Speaker's Homepage: A Toast to You and Yours: Tips for Making Toasts.
Award Presentations. Nominations. Acceptances. Keynote Addresses. Commencement Addresses. Commemorative Addresses and Tributes. Eulogies.
After-Dinner Speaking.

19. Speaking in Small Groups.
Solving Problems in Groups.
Identify and Define the Problem. Analyze the Problem. Generate Possible Solutions. Select the Best Solution. Test and Implement the Solution.
Tips for Participating in Small Groups.
Come Prepared for Group Discussions. Do Not Suggest Solutions Before Analyzing the Problem. Evaluate Evidence. Help Summarize the Group's Progress. Listen and Respond Courteously to Others. Help Manage Conflict.
Using the Power of Technology in Groups.
Leadership in Small Groups.
Leadership Responsibilities. Leadership Styles.
Managing Meetings.
How to Give Meetings Structure. How to Foster Group Interaction.
Speaker's Homepage: Using Parliamentary Procedures to Give Structure to Large Groups.
Presenting Group Recommendations.
Symposium Presentation. Forum Presentation. Panel Discussion. Written Report.
Tips for Planning a Group Presentation.

Appendix A: The Classical Tradition of Rhetoric.
The Earliest Teachers of Rhetoric. Beginning of the Greek Tradition: The Sophists. Plato. Aristotle. The Roman Tradition. Conclusion.
Appendix B: Suggested Speech Topics.
Informative Speech Topics. Persuasive Speech Topics.
Appendix C: Preparing Visual Aids for Presentation.
Designing Your Visual Aids.
Keep Your Graphics Simple. Include a Manageable Amount of Information. Group Related Elements into Visual Units. Repeat Elements to Unify Your Presentation. Vary Your Typefaces and Point Sizes Judiciously. Choosing a Typeface. Choosing Type Sizes.
Use Color to Create a Mood and Sustain Attention.
Using Black and White Effectively.
Using PowerPoint and Other Graphic Programs.
Walkthrough: Preparing a Visual Display with PowerPoint. Publishing the Web.
Appendix D: Speeches for Analysis and Discussion.
Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream.
Nance Riffe, The Danger Model Immunology.
Mike Wagner, The American Drug Cartel.
Karon Bowers, Schadenfreude.

Other Editions of Public Speaking : An Audience-Centered Approach / With CD-ROM

Public Speaking : An Audience Centered Approach by Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe - ISBN 9780205384310