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Quantitative Chemical Analysis / With CD-ROM

Quantitative Chemical Analysis / With CD-ROM - 5th edition

Quantitative Chemical Analysis / With CD-ROM - 5th edition

ISBN13: 9780716728818

ISBN10: 0716728818

Quantitative Chemical Analysis / With CD-ROM by Daniel C. Harris - ISBN 9780716728818
Edition: 5TH 99
Copyright: 1999
Publisher: W.H. Freeman
Published: 1999
International: No
Quantitative Chemical Analysis / With CD-ROM by Daniel C. Harris - ISBN 9780716728818

ISBN13: 9780716728818

ISBN10: 0716728818

Edition: 5TH 99


Harris' new edition carries forward the features that have made this text so popular--straightforward explanations and an applications-oriented presentation, many with a biological focus--adding new pedagogy, more applications, and more examples. It is also the only text for this discipline packaged with its own CD-ROM.

  • Straight forward and student friendly writing style
  • Wealth of real-world applications from a wide range of fields
  • Spreadsheets shows how chemists work with real data
  • A wealth of drill problems offers students many opportunities to practice what they've learned
  • Margin notes explain and amplify key points
  • Explanatory boxes highlight and expand on relevent points
  • "Big picture" approach connects material from various chapters and aspects of the field
  • New Chapter 0 walks students through the scientific method, emphasizing how it relates to chemical analysis
  • Dozens of new applications-oriented problems focus on basic, practical applications of analytical methods
  • Expanded Examples (e.g. Chapter 24, "Gas Chromatography," begins with a case study describing how, using these methods and 1,000-year-old human bones, scientists determined the diet of our ancestors
  • New "Calibration Methods" chapter (combining least squares and calibration methods in a new separate chapter, Chapter 5)
  • Putting the Pieces Together Problems ask students to integrate concepts from multiple chapters, giving them a broader perspective of how chemical analysis is done

Author Bio

Harris, Daniel C. : Michelson Laboratory, China Lake

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

0. The Analytical Process

Actions and Consequences
Analytical Chemists Are Sleuths And Sometimes Life Is Messy
Sampling and Sample Preparation
General Steps in a Chemical Analysis
Box 0-1 Constructing a Representative Sample

1. Measurements

Measuring the Universe
SI Units
Chemical Concentrations
Preparing Solutions
Solutions and Stoichiometry

2. Tools of the Trade

Weighing Femtomoles of DNA
Safe, Ethical Handling of Chemicals and Waste
Box 2-1 Disposal of Chemical Waste
The Lab Notebook
Analytical Balance
Box 2-2 The Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Volumetric Flasks
Pipets and Syringes
Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

3. Experimental Error

Experimental Error
Significant Figures
Significant Figures in Arithmetic
Significant Figures and Graphs
Types of Error
Box 3-1 Standard Reference Materials
Propagation of Uncertainty

4. Statistics and Spreadsheets

Is My Red Blood Cell Count High Today?
Gaussian Distribution
Confidence Intervals
Comparison of Means with Student's t
Q Test for Bad Data
Box 4-1 Analytical Chemistry and the Law
Control Charts

5. Calibration Methods

A Historic Calibration Curve
Finding the "Best" Straight Line
Calibration Curves
Box 5-1 Using a Nonlinear Calibration Curve
Standard Addition
Internal Standards
A Spreadsheet for Least Squares

6. Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium in the Environment
The Equilibrium Constant
Equilibrium and Thermodynamics
Solubility Product
The Common Ion Effect
Demonstration 6-1 Common Ion Effect
Box 6-1 The Logic of Approximations
Separation by Precipitation
Complex Formation
Box 6-2 Notation for Formation Constants
Protic Acids and Bases
Strengths of Acids and Bases
Demonstration 6-2 The HCl Fountain
Box 6-3 The Strange Behavior of Hydrofluoric Acid
Box 6-4 Carbonic Acid

7. Let the Titrations Begin

Evolution of the Buret
Titration Calculations
Spectrophotometric Titrations
The Precipitation Titration Curve
Titration of a Mixture
Calculating Titration Curves with a Spreadsheet
End-Point Detection
Demonstration 7-1 Fajans Titration

8. Activity

Hydrated Radii
The Effect of Ionic Strength on Solubility of Salts
Demonstration 8-1 Effect of Ionic Strength on Ion Dissociation
Box 8-1 Salts with Ions of Charge > |2| Do Not Fully Dissociate into Ions in Water
Activity Coefficients
Using Activity Coefficients
pH Revisited

9. Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium

Acid Rain
Charge Balance
Mass Balance
Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium
Box 9-1 Calcium Carbonate Mass Balance in Rivers The Dependence of Solubility on pH
Box 9-2 All Right, Dan, How Would You Really Solve The CaF2 Problem?
Box 9-3 pH and Tooth Decay

10. Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria

Measuring pH Inside Single Cells
Strong Acids and Bases
Weak Acids and Bases
Weak-Acid Equilibria
Demonstration 10-1 Conductivity of Weak Electrolytes
Weak-Base Equilibria
Box 10-1 Dyeing Fabrics and the Fraction of Dissociation
Box 10-2 Strong Plus Weak Reacts Completely
Demonstration 10-2 How Buffers Work

11. Polyprotic Acid-Base Equilibria

Proteins Are Polyprotic Acids and Bases
Diprotic Acids and Bases
Diprotic Buffers
Box 11-1 Successive Approximations
Polyprotic Acids and Bases
Which Is the Principal Species?
Fractional Composition Equations
Isoelectric and Isoionic pH
Box 11-2 Isoelectric Focusing

12. Acid-Base Titrations

Acid-Base Titration of a Protein
Titration of Strong Acid with Strong Base
Titration of Weak Acid with Strong Base
Titration of Weak Base with Strong Acid
Titrations in Diprotic Systems
Finding the End Point with a pH Electrode
Demonstration 12-1 Indicators and the Acidity of CO2Finding the End Point with
Box 12-1 Alkalinity and Acidity
Box 12-2 What Does a Negative pH Mean?
Practical Notes
Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents
Calculating Titration Curves with Spreadsheets
Box 12-3 World Record Small Titration

13. EDTA Titrations

A Chelating Ligand Captures Its Prey
Metal-Chelate Complexes
Box 13-1 Chelation Therapy and Thalassemia
EDTA Titration Curves
Do It with a Spreadsheet
Auxiliary Complexing Agents
Metal Ion Indicators
EDTA Titration Techniques
Box 13-2 Water Hardness
Demonstration 13-1 Metal Ion Indicator Color Changes

14. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry

An Atomic-Scale Galvanic Cell
Basic Concepts
Galvanic Cells
Demonstration 14-1 The Human Salt Bridge
Standard Potentials
Nernst Equation
Box 14-1 Latimer Diagrams: How to Find E for a New Half-Reaction
E and the Equilibrium Constant
Cells as Chemical Probes
Biochemists Use E*
Box 14-2 E and the Cell Voltage Do Not Depend on How You Write the Cell Reaction
Box 14-3 Concentrations in the Operating Cell

15. Electrodes and Potentiometry

A Heparin Sensor
Reference Electrodes
Indicator Electrodes
What Is a Junction Potential?
pH Measurement with a Glass Electrode
Demonstration 15-1 Potentiometry with an Oscillating Reaction
Ion-Selective Electrodes
Box 15-1 Systematic Error in Rainwater pH Measurement: The Effect of Junction Potential
Using Ion-Selective Electrodes
Solid-State Chemical Sensors

16. Redox Titrations

Chemical Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors
The Shape of a Redox Titration Curve
Redox Indicators
Demonstration 16-1 Potentiometric Titration of Fe2+ with MnO4
Adjustment of Analyte Oxidation State
Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate
Oxidation with Ce4+
Oxidation with Potassium Dichromate
Box 16-1 Environmental Carbon Analysis and Oxygen Demand
Methods Involving Iodine
Box 16-2 Iodometric Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors

17. Electrogravimetric and Coulometric Analysis

How Sweet it Is!
Electrolysis: Putting Electrons To Work
Why Voltage Changes When Current Flows
Demonstration 17-1 Electrochemical Writing
Electrogravimetric Analysis
Demonstration 17-2 Silver and Gold Pennies
Coulometric Analysis
Box 17-1 Electrical Wiring of Redox Enzymes

18. Voltammetry

Oxygen Sensors for Automobile Pollution Control
Why We Use a Mercury Electrode in Polarography
Shape of the Polarogram
Polarography in Chemical Analysis
Pulse Polarography
Stripping Analysis
Cyclic Voltammetry
Karl Fischer Titration of H2O
Box 18-1 The Electric Double Layer
Box 18-2 An Optically Transparent Thin-Layer Electrode
Box 18-3 Oxygen Electrodes
Demonstration 18-1 The Karl Fischer Jacks of A pH Meter

19. Fundamentals of Spectrophotometry

The Ozone Hole
Properties of Light
Absorption of Light
The Spectrophotometer
Beer's Law in Chemical Analysis
What Happens When a Molecule Absorbs Light?
Box 19-1 Why Is There a Logarithmic Relation Between Transmittance and
Box 19-2 Fluorescence All Around Us
Demonstration 19-1 Absorption Spectra

20. Applications of Spectrophotometry

Fiber-Optic Glucose Sensor
Analysis of a Mixture
Measuring an Equilibrium Constant: The Scatchard Plot
The Method of Continuous Variation
Flow Injection Analysis
Sensors Based on Luminescence Quenching
Box 20-1 Converting Light into Electricity

21. Spectrophotometers

The Most Important Photoreceptor
Interaction of Light with Matter
The Spectrophotometer
Lamps and Lasers: Sources of Light
Errors in Spectrophotometry
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Dealing with Noise
Box 21-1 Blackbody Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect
Box 21-2 On the Road to an "Electronic Nose"

22. Atomic Spectroscopy

An Anthropology Puzzle
An Overview
Atomization: Flames, Furnaces, and Plasmas
How Temperature Affects Atomic Spectroscopy
Box 22-1 A Smokestack Metal Emission Monitor: Challenges in Sampling and Calibration

23. Introduction to Analytical Separations

Analytical Separations and Chemical Problem Solving
Solvent Extraction
What Is Chromatography?
A Plumber's View of Chromatography
Efficiency of Separation
Why Bands Spread
Box 23-1 Crown Ethers
Demonstration 23-1 Extraction with Dithizone

24. Gas Chromatography

What Did They Eat in the Year 1000?
The Separation Process in Gas Chromatography
Sample Injection
Sample Preparation
Method Development in Gas Chromatography
What Is Mass Spectrometry?
Mass Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry
Box 24-1 Chiral Phases for Separating Optical Isomers
Box 24-2 How the Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometer Separates Ions of Different Mass
Box 24-3 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

25. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

In Vivo Microdialysis for Measuring Drug Metabolism
The Chromatographic Process
Method Development for Reverse-Phase Separations
Gradient Separations
Box 25-1 Designer Stationary Phases
Box 25-2 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Injection and Detection in HPLC

26. Chromatographic Methods and Capillary Electrophoresis

The Shape of the Future: Analysis on a Chip
Ion-Exchange Chromatography
Ion Chromatography
Molecular Exclusion Chromatography
Affinity Chromatography
Capillary Electrophoresis
Box 26-1 Chemical Analysis of a Single Cell

27. Gravimetric and Combustion Analysis

Tree Rings and Our Changing Environment
An Example of Gravimetric Analysis
Examples of Gravimetric Calculations
Combustion Analysis
Demonstration 27-1 Colloids and Dialysis

28. Sample Preparation

Extraction Measures
Statistics of Sampling
Dissolving Samples for Analysis
Sample Preparation Techniques
Analytical Standards
Box 28-1 The Horwitz Trumpet: Variation in Interlaboratory Tests

29. Experiments

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware
Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as CaC2O4 *H2O
Gravimetric Determination of Iron as Fe2O3
Statistical Evaluation of Acid-Base Indicators
Preparing Standard Acid and Base
Using a pH Electrode for an Acid-Base Titration
Analysis of a Mixture of Carbonate and Bicarbonate
Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot
EDTA Titration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in Natural Waters
Synthesis and Analysis of Ammonium Decavanadate
Iodimetric Titration of Vitamin C
Preparation and Iodometric Analysis of High-Temperature
Potentiometric Halide Titration with Ag+
Electrogravimetric Analysis of Copper
Polarographic Measurement of an Equilibrium Constant
Coulometric Titration of Cyclohexene with Bromine
Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets
Microscale Spectrophotometric Measurement of Iron in Foods by
Standard Addition
Spectrophotometric Measurement of an Equilibrium Constant
Analysis of Sulfur in Coal by Ion Chromatography
Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Automobile Exhaust by Gas
Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis
DNA Composition by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Solutions to Exercises
Answers to Problems