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Stats & Probability for Behavioral/Social Sciences Textbooks

by Chava Frankfort-Nachmias and Anna Leon-Guerrero

Edition: 3RD 02Copyright: 2002

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

Published: 2002

International: No

Chava Frankfort-Nachmias and Anna Leon-Guerrero

Edition: 3RD 02
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**Features/Benefits:**

- A close link between the practice of statistics, important social issues, and real-world examples this shows students that in the social sciences there is a constant interplay between social concerns and the methods of inquiry and investigation.
- Informal writing style Coupled with the use of real-world example, the conversational writing style results in a book that is more accessible and engaging for students.
- A focus on race, class and gender pervades the book - this emphasis on diversity sets the book apart from others in the field and mirrors the major emphasis in the social sciences today.
- Reading the Research Literature sections in most chapters help student read and interpret statistical information in professional and scholarly publications.
- Integration and Review Chapters- Chs. 9 and 15 review the two halves of the book for descriptive and inferential statistics, respectively. These two chapters help students understand the interconnectedness of concepts presented in Chs. 2-8 and 10 14, while testing their abilities to cumulatively apply their knowledge.
- Boxes and Learning Checks in chapters Throughout the book are found Boxes that contain information on statistics in practice and insightful tips on using various techniques. The Learning Checks allow students to test their understanding of concepts just presented.
- Emphasis on Computing SPSS for Windows is used throughout the book in conjunction with General Social Survey data to introduce students to one of the most commonly used analytical software packages in the field. At the end of each chapter is a demonstration of a related SPSS procedure, along with a set of exercises.

**New to This Edition:**

- Clearer and more concise presentation of topics.
- Extensive revision to Chapter 13, Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples.
- Two supplemental electronic chapters for multiple regression and analysis of multivariates.
- New student CD bundled with each copy of text. The CD includes the two e-chapters, 3 GSS data sets, a National Geographic data set with accompanying exercises, a SPSS demo, and more.
- SPSS version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0.
- Instructor's Manual on CD-ROM with significant teaching support materials: testbank, PowerPoint slides, and more.
- This groundbreaking textbook uses real-world research examples and data to provide a revealing introduction to social science statistics. The Third Edition of this widely adopted text effectively links social issues and sociological concepts with statistical techniques. Realizing that students may lack a substantial math background, or suffer from "math anxiety," the material in this book is presented using straightforward prose that emphasizes intuition, logic, and common sense rather than rote memorization. Throughout the text instructors are provided with resources to support effective teaching: illustrations showing how statistical concepts are used to interpret social issues, guides for reading and interpreting the research literature, SPSS demonstrations, and a rich variety of exercises. The user-friendly, informal style of this innovative text has been widely applauded by students and instructors alike.

**Highlights of the Third Edition :**

- A number of important changes have been made to this edition in response to the valuable comments received from the many instructors adopting the Second Edition and from other interested instructors and students.
- Clearer and More Concise Presentation of Topics
- The discussion of statistical procedures and concepts has been carefully edited, reducing redundancy of and clarifying examples, while at the same time preserving the book's easily understood style.
- Real-World Examples and Exercises
- A hallmark of the first two editions was the extensive use of real data from a variety of sources for chapter illustrations and exercises. Throughout the Third Edition, the majority of exercises and examples have been updated based on General Social Survey or U.S. Census data.

**Revisions to Chapter 13: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples**

The detailed discussion of the principles of hypothesis testing, including the Z test for one sample, has been reintroduced from the First Edition. In addition, we have added a discussion of the t statistic in the context of one-sample tests. One sample tests are introduced here as a pedagogical tool to clarify statistical inference before moving to the more complicated concept of the two-sample test. For simplification, the discussion of unequal variances has been boxed and shortened considerably.

**Supplemental Electronic Materials**

Rather than adding additional chapters and printed pages to the text, a CD-ROM with supplemental materials has been included in this new edition. These supplemental materials provide increased flexibility for instructors and students and include: two additional electronic chapters three GSS data sets a National Geographic data set with exercises a data dictionary for the SPSS variables and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. The first chapter includes an expanded version of Chapter 8¾ Bivariate Regression and Correlation with new sections on inference in regression, analysis of variance, and a brief overview of multiple regression techniques. This chapter can be used in conjunction with the printed Chapter 8 or used alone. The second chapter is a stand-alone chapter on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The chapter begins with a detailed computational example, highlights two SPSS ANOVA applications, and reviews two examples from the research literature. As in the text chapters, each electronic chapter concludes with an SPSS demonstration, SPSS exercises, and end of chapter exercises (with selected answers).

**SPSS Version 11.0**

- The Third Edition of this text includes examples and screen shots utilizing SPSS Version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0. The SPSS CD-ROM contains: SPSS Student Version material plus
- 3 GSS data sets
- an NG data set with exercises
- a data dictionary for the SPSS variables
- and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. Demonstrations and exercises have been updated, using version 11.0 format. To order the book packaged with the Student Version of SPSS 11.0, use order code: ISBN: 0-7619-8777-0.

**General Social Survey 1998**

As a companion to the Third Edition's SPSS demonstrations and exercises, three data sets have been created. Those using the Student Version of SPSS 11.0 will work with two separate GSS files: GSS Module A features gender and family issues, and GSS Module B highlights race and government policy issues. The GSS96PFP.SAV contains an expanded selection of variables and cases from the 1998 General Social Survey. SPSS exercises at the end of each chapter utilize certain variables from all data modules. There is ample opportunity for instructors to develop their own SPSS exercises using this data.

**Supplemental Tools on Important Topics**

The Third Edition's discussion of inferential statistics remains focused on Z, t and chi-square. The Pine Forge Press Series in Research Methods and Statistics, of which this book is a part, includes additional supplementary volumes by Paul Allison on regression and by Robert Leik on analysis of variance. These supplements were written to closely coordinate with this text and are available from Pine Forge Press.

**Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava : University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee**

Leon-Guerrero, Anna : Pacific Lutheran University

**1. The What and the Why of Statistics **

The Research Process

Asking Research Questions

The Role of Theory

Formulating the Hyupotheses

Collecting Data

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Looking at Social Differences

** 2. Organization of Information: Frequency Distributions **

Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Percentage Distributions

Comparisons

Statistics in Practice:

Labor Force Participation of Native Americans

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Cumulative Distributions

Rates

Statistics in Practice: Marriage and Divorce Rates over Time

Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables

** 3. Graphic Presentation **

The Pie Chart: The Race and Ethnicity of the Eldersly

The Bar Graph: The Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly

The Statistical Map: the Geographic Distribution of the Elderly

The Histogram

Statistics in Practice: The "Graying" of America

The Frequency Polygon

Time Series Charts

Distortions in Graphs

Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance

** 4. Measures of Central Tendency **

The Mode

The Median

The Mean

The Shape of the Distribution: The Experience of Traumatic Events

Consideration for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

** 5. Measures of Variability **

The Importance of Measuring Variability

The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV)

The Range

The Interquartile Range: Increases in Elderly Populations

The Box Plot

The Variance and the Standard Deviation: Changes in the Nursing Home Population

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation

Reading the Research Literature: Gender Differences in Caregiving

** 6. Relationships Between Two Variables: Cross-Tabulation **

Independent and Dependent Variables

How to Construct a Bivariate Table:

Race and Home Ownership

How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table

How to Deal with Ambiguous Relationships

Between Variables

Reading the Research Literature: Medicaid Use Among the Elderly

The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship

Elaboration

Statistics in Practice: Family Support for the Transition from High School

** 7. Measures of Association for Nominal and Ordinal Variables **

Proportional Reduction of Error and Degree of Association

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association

Calculating Gamma

Using Ordinal Measures with Dichotomous Variables

Reading the Research Literature: Worldview and Abortion Beliefs

** 8. Bivariaate Regression and Correlation **

The Scatter Diagram

Linear Relations and Prediction Rules

Statistics in Practice: GNP and Willingness to Volunteer Time for Environmental Protection

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Statistics in Practice: Teen Pregnancy and Inequality

Statistics in Practice: The Marriage Penalty in Earnings

** 9. Organization of Information and Measurement of Relationships: A Review of Descriptive Data Analysis **

Descriptive Data Analysis for Nominal Variables

Statistics in Practice: Gender and Local Political Party Activism

Descriptive Data Analysis for Ordinal Variables

Descriptive Data Analysis for Interval-Ratio Variables

Statistics in Practice: Education and Income

** 10. The Normal Distribution **

Properties of the Normal Distribution

Standard (Z) Scores

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

The Structure of the Standard Normal Table

Transforming Z Scores into Proportions (or Percentages)

** 11. Sampling and Sampling Distribution **

Aims of Sampling

Some Basic Principles of Probability

Probability Sampling

The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

** 12. Estimation **

Estimation Defined

Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means

Statistics in Practice Hispanic Migration and Earnings

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Statistics in Practice: Should Affirmative Action Programs Be Increased?

** 13. Testing Hypotheses **

Part I: The Basics

Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Determining What Is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

The t Statistic and Estimating the Standard Error

The t Distribution and the Degrees of Freedom

Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of White Women

Part II: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples

The Assumption of Independent Samples

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

The Sampling Distribution of the Differences Between Means

The Five Steps in Hypotheses Testing about Difference between Means; A Summary

Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of Asia American Men

Testing the Significance of the Difference

Between Two Sample Proportions

Statistics in Practice: Equaliziang Income

Statistics in Practice: Gender and Abortion Attitudes

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

** 14. The Chi-Square Test **

The Concepts of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square

The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance

Statistics in Practice: Social Class and Health

Reading the Research Literature: Sibling Cooperation and Academic Achievement

** 15. Reviewing Inferential Statistics **

Normal Distribtuions

Sampling: The Case of AIDS

Estimation

Statistics in Practice: The War on Drugs

The Process of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Statistics in Practice: Education and Employment

Appendix A: Table of Random Numbers

Appendix B: The Standard Normal Table

Appendix C: Distribution of t

Appendix D: Distribution of Chi-Square

Appendix E: Distribution of F

Appendix F: A Basic Math Review

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

Index/Glossary

Summary

**Features/Benefits:**

- A close link between the practice of statistics, important social issues, and real-world examples this shows students that in the social sciences there is a constant interplay between social concerns and the methods of inquiry and investigation.
- Informal writing style Coupled with the use of real-world example, the conversational writing style results in a book that is more accessible and engaging for students.
- A focus on race, class and gender pervades the book - this emphasis on diversity sets the book apart from others in the field and mirrors the major emphasis in the social sciences today.
- Reading the Research Literature sections in most chapters help student read and interpret statistical information in professional and scholarly publications.
- Integration and Review Chapters- Chs. 9 and 15 review the two halves of the book for descriptive and inferential statistics, respectively. These two chapters help students understand the interconnectedness of concepts presented in Chs. 2-8 and 10 14, while testing their abilities to cumulatively apply their knowledge.
- Boxes and Learning Checks in chapters Throughout the book are found Boxes that contain information on statistics in practice and insightful tips on using various techniques. The Learning Checks allow students to test their understanding of concepts just presented.
- Emphasis on Computing SPSS for Windows is used throughout the book in conjunction with General Social Survey data to introduce students to one of the most commonly used analytical software packages in the field. At the end of each chapter is a demonstration of a related SPSS procedure, along with a set of exercises.

**New to This Edition:**

- Clearer and more concise presentation of topics.
- Extensive revision to Chapter 13, Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples.
- Two supplemental electronic chapters for multiple regression and analysis of multivariates.
- New student CD bundled with each copy of text. The CD includes the two e-chapters, 3 GSS data sets, a National Geographic data set with accompanying exercises, a SPSS demo, and more.
- SPSS version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0.
- Instructor's Manual on CD-ROM with significant teaching support materials: testbank, PowerPoint slides, and more.
- This groundbreaking textbook uses real-world research examples and data to provide a revealing introduction to social science statistics. The Third Edition of this widely adopted text effectively links social issues and sociological concepts with statistical techniques. Realizing that students may lack a substantial math background, or suffer from "math anxiety," the material in this book is presented using straightforward prose that emphasizes intuition, logic, and common sense rather than rote memorization. Throughout the text instructors are provided with resources to support effective teaching: illustrations showing how statistical concepts are used to interpret social issues, guides for reading and interpreting the research literature, SPSS demonstrations, and a rich variety of exercises. The user-friendly, informal style of this innovative text has been widely applauded by students and instructors alike.

**Highlights of the Third Edition :**

- A number of important changes have been made to this edition in response to the valuable comments received from the many instructors adopting the Second Edition and from other interested instructors and students.
- Clearer and More Concise Presentation of Topics
- The discussion of statistical procedures and concepts has been carefully edited, reducing redundancy of and clarifying examples, while at the same time preserving the book's easily understood style.
- Real-World Examples and Exercises
- A hallmark of the first two editions was the extensive use of real data from a variety of sources for chapter illustrations and exercises. Throughout the Third Edition, the majority of exercises and examples have been updated based on General Social Survey or U.S. Census data.

**Revisions to Chapter 13: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples**

The detailed discussion of the principles of hypothesis testing, including the Z test for one sample, has been reintroduced from the First Edition. In addition, we have added a discussion of the t statistic in the context of one-sample tests. One sample tests are introduced here as a pedagogical tool to clarify statistical inference before moving to the more complicated concept of the two-sample test. For simplification, the discussion of unequal variances has been boxed and shortened considerably.

**Supplemental Electronic Materials**

Rather than adding additional chapters and printed pages to the text, a CD-ROM with supplemental materials has been included in this new edition. These supplemental materials provide increased flexibility for instructors and students and include: two additional electronic chapters three GSS data sets a National Geographic data set with exercises a data dictionary for the SPSS variables and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. The first chapter includes an expanded version of Chapter 8¾ Bivariate Regression and Correlation with new sections on inference in regression, analysis of variance, and a brief overview of multiple regression techniques. This chapter can be used in conjunction with the printed Chapter 8 or used alone. The second chapter is a stand-alone chapter on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The chapter begins with a detailed computational example, highlights two SPSS ANOVA applications, and reviews two examples from the research literature. As in the text chapters, each electronic chapter concludes with an SPSS demonstration, SPSS exercises, and end of chapter exercises (with selected answers).

**SPSS Version 11.0**

- The Third Edition of this text includes examples and screen shots utilizing SPSS Version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0. The SPSS CD-ROM contains: SPSS Student Version material plus
- 3 GSS data sets
- an NG data set with exercises
- a data dictionary for the SPSS variables
- and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. Demonstrations and exercises have been updated, using version 11.0 format. To order the book packaged with the Student Version of SPSS 11.0, use order code: ISBN: 0-7619-8777-0.

**General Social Survey 1998**

As a companion to the Third Edition's SPSS demonstrations and exercises, three data sets have been created. Those using the Student Version of SPSS 11.0 will work with two separate GSS files: GSS Module A features gender and family issues, and GSS Module B highlights race and government policy issues. The GSS96PFP.SAV contains an expanded selection of variables and cases from the 1998 General Social Survey. SPSS exercises at the end of each chapter utilize certain variables from all data modules. There is ample opportunity for instructors to develop their own SPSS exercises using this data.

**Supplemental Tools on Important Topics**

The Third Edition's discussion of inferential statistics remains focused on Z, t and chi-square. The Pine Forge Press Series in Research Methods and Statistics, of which this book is a part, includes additional supplementary volumes by Paul Allison on regression and by Robert Leik on analysis of variance. These supplements were written to closely coordinate with this text and are available from Pine Forge Press.

Author Bio

**Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava : University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee**

Leon-Guerrero, Anna : Pacific Lutheran University

Table of Contents

**1. The What and the Why of Statistics **

The Research Process

Asking Research Questions

The Role of Theory

Formulating the Hyupotheses

Collecting Data

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Looking at Social Differences

** 2. Organization of Information: Frequency Distributions **

Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Percentage Distributions

Comparisons

Statistics in Practice:

Labor Force Participation of Native Americans

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Cumulative Distributions

Rates

Statistics in Practice: Marriage and Divorce Rates over Time

Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables

** 3. Graphic Presentation **

The Pie Chart: The Race and Ethnicity of the Eldersly

The Bar Graph: The Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly

The Statistical Map: the Geographic Distribution of the Elderly

The Histogram

Statistics in Practice: The "Graying" of America

The Frequency Polygon

Time Series Charts

Distortions in Graphs

Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance

** 4. Measures of Central Tendency **

The Mode

The Median

The Mean

The Shape of the Distribution: The Experience of Traumatic Events

Consideration for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

** 5. Measures of Variability **

The Importance of Measuring Variability

The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV)

The Range

The Interquartile Range: Increases in Elderly Populations

The Box Plot

The Variance and the Standard Deviation: Changes in the Nursing Home Population

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation

Reading the Research Literature: Gender Differences in Caregiving

** 6. Relationships Between Two Variables: Cross-Tabulation **

Independent and Dependent Variables

How to Construct a Bivariate Table:

Race and Home Ownership

How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table

How to Deal with Ambiguous Relationships

Between Variables

Reading the Research Literature: Medicaid Use Among the Elderly

The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship

Elaboration

Statistics in Practice: Family Support for the Transition from High School

** 7. Measures of Association for Nominal and Ordinal Variables **

Proportional Reduction of Error and Degree of Association

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association

Calculating Gamma

Using Ordinal Measures with Dichotomous Variables

Reading the Research Literature: Worldview and Abortion Beliefs

** 8. Bivariaate Regression and Correlation **

The Scatter Diagram

Linear Relations and Prediction Rules

Statistics in Practice: GNP and Willingness to Volunteer Time for Environmental Protection

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Statistics in Practice: Teen Pregnancy and Inequality

Statistics in Practice: The Marriage Penalty in Earnings

** 9. Organization of Information and Measurement of Relationships: A Review of Descriptive Data Analysis **

Descriptive Data Analysis for Nominal Variables

Statistics in Practice: Gender and Local Political Party Activism

Descriptive Data Analysis for Ordinal Variables

Descriptive Data Analysis for Interval-Ratio Variables

Statistics in Practice: Education and Income

** 10. The Normal Distribution **

Properties of the Normal Distribution

Standard (Z) Scores

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

The Structure of the Standard Normal Table

Transforming Z Scores into Proportions (or Percentages)

** 11. Sampling and Sampling Distribution **

Aims of Sampling

Some Basic Principles of Probability

Probability Sampling

The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

** 12. Estimation **

Estimation Defined

Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means

Statistics in Practice Hispanic Migration and Earnings

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Statistics in Practice: Should Affirmative Action Programs Be Increased?

** 13. Testing Hypotheses **

Part I: The Basics

Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Determining What Is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

The t Statistic and Estimating the Standard Error

The t Distribution and the Degrees of Freedom

Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of White Women

Part II: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples

The Assumption of Independent Samples

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

The Sampling Distribution of the Differences Between Means

The Five Steps in Hypotheses Testing about Difference between Means; A Summary

Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of Asia American Men

Testing the Significance of the Difference

Between Two Sample Proportions

Statistics in Practice: Equaliziang Income

Statistics in Practice: Gender and Abortion Attitudes

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

** 14. The Chi-Square Test **

The Concepts of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square

The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance

Statistics in Practice: Social Class and Health

Reading the Research Literature: Sibling Cooperation and Academic Achievement

** 15. Reviewing Inferential Statistics **

Normal Distribtuions

Sampling: The Case of AIDS

Estimation

Statistics in Practice: The War on Drugs

The Process of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Statistics in Practice: Education and Employment

Appendix A: Table of Random Numbers

Appendix B: The Standard Normal Table

Appendix C: Distribution of t

Appendix D: Distribution of Chi-Square

Appendix E: Distribution of F

Appendix F: A Basic Math Review

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

Index/Glossary

Publisher Info

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

Published: 2002

International: No

Published: 2002

International: No

**Features/Benefits:**

- A close link between the practice of statistics, important social issues, and real-world examples this shows students that in the social sciences there is a constant interplay between social concerns and the methods of inquiry and investigation.
- Informal writing style Coupled with the use of real-world example, the conversational writing style results in a book that is more accessible and engaging for students.
- A focus on race, class and gender pervades the book - this emphasis on diversity sets the book apart from others in the field and mirrors the major emphasis in the social sciences today.
- Reading the Research Literature sections in most chapters help student read and interpret statistical information in professional and scholarly publications.
- Integration and Review Chapters- Chs. 9 and 15 review the two halves of the book for descriptive and inferential statistics, respectively. These two chapters help students understand the interconnectedness of concepts presented in Chs. 2-8 and 10 14, while testing their abilities to cumulatively apply their knowledge.
- Boxes and Learning Checks in chapters Throughout the book are found Boxes that contain information on statistics in practice and insightful tips on using various techniques. The Learning Checks allow students to test their understanding of concepts just presented.
- Emphasis on Computing SPSS for Windows is used throughout the book in conjunction with General Social Survey data to introduce students to one of the most commonly used analytical software packages in the field. At the end of each chapter is a demonstration of a related SPSS procedure, along with a set of exercises.

**New to This Edition:**

- Clearer and more concise presentation of topics.
- Extensive revision to Chapter 13, Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples.
- Two supplemental electronic chapters for multiple regression and analysis of multivariates.
- New student CD bundled with each copy of text. The CD includes the two e-chapters, 3 GSS data sets, a National Geographic data set with accompanying exercises, a SPSS demo, and more.
- SPSS version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0.
- Instructor's Manual on CD-ROM with significant teaching support materials: testbank, PowerPoint slides, and more.
- This groundbreaking textbook uses real-world research examples and data to provide a revealing introduction to social science statistics. The Third Edition of this widely adopted text effectively links social issues and sociological concepts with statistical techniques. Realizing that students may lack a substantial math background, or suffer from "math anxiety," the material in this book is presented using straightforward prose that emphasizes intuition, logic, and common sense rather than rote memorization. Throughout the text instructors are provided with resources to support effective teaching: illustrations showing how statistical concepts are used to interpret social issues, guides for reading and interpreting the research literature, SPSS demonstrations, and a rich variety of exercises. The user-friendly, informal style of this innovative text has been widely applauded by students and instructors alike.

**Highlights of the Third Edition :**

- A number of important changes have been made to this edition in response to the valuable comments received from the many instructors adopting the Second Edition and from other interested instructors and students.
- Clearer and More Concise Presentation of Topics
- The discussion of statistical procedures and concepts has been carefully edited, reducing redundancy of and clarifying examples, while at the same time preserving the book's easily understood style.
- Real-World Examples and Exercises
- A hallmark of the first two editions was the extensive use of real data from a variety of sources for chapter illustrations and exercises. Throughout the Third Edition, the majority of exercises and examples have been updated based on General Social Survey or U.S. Census data.

**Revisions to Chapter 13: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples**

The detailed discussion of the principles of hypothesis testing, including the Z test for one sample, has been reintroduced from the First Edition. In addition, we have added a discussion of the t statistic in the context of one-sample tests. One sample tests are introduced here as a pedagogical tool to clarify statistical inference before moving to the more complicated concept of the two-sample test. For simplification, the discussion of unequal variances has been boxed and shortened considerably.

**Supplemental Electronic Materials**

Rather than adding additional chapters and printed pages to the text, a CD-ROM with supplemental materials has been included in this new edition. These supplemental materials provide increased flexibility for instructors and students and include: two additional electronic chapters three GSS data sets a National Geographic data set with exercises a data dictionary for the SPSS variables and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. The first chapter includes an expanded version of Chapter 8¾ Bivariate Regression and Correlation with new sections on inference in regression, analysis of variance, and a brief overview of multiple regression techniques. This chapter can be used in conjunction with the printed Chapter 8 or used alone. The second chapter is a stand-alone chapter on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The chapter begins with a detailed computational example, highlights two SPSS ANOVA applications, and reviews two examples from the research literature. As in the text chapters, each electronic chapter concludes with an SPSS demonstration, SPSS exercises, and end of chapter exercises (with selected answers).

**SPSS Version 11.0**

- The Third Edition of this text includes examples and screen shots utilizing SPSS Version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0. The SPSS CD-ROM contains: SPSS Student Version material plus
- 3 GSS data sets
- an NG data set with exercises
- a data dictionary for the SPSS variables
- and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. Demonstrations and exercises have been updated, using version 11.0 format. To order the book packaged with the Student Version of SPSS 11.0, use order code: ISBN: 0-7619-8777-0.

**General Social Survey 1998**

As a companion to the Third Edition's SPSS demonstrations and exercises, three data sets have been created. Those using the Student Version of SPSS 11.0 will work with two separate GSS files: GSS Module A features gender and family issues, and GSS Module B highlights race and government policy issues. The GSS96PFP.SAV contains an expanded selection of variables and cases from the 1998 General Social Survey. SPSS exercises at the end of each chapter utilize certain variables from all data modules. There is ample opportunity for instructors to develop their own SPSS exercises using this data.

**Supplemental Tools on Important Topics**

The Third Edition's discussion of inferential statistics remains focused on Z, t and chi-square. The Pine Forge Press Series in Research Methods and Statistics, of which this book is a part, includes additional supplementary volumes by Paul Allison on regression and by Robert Leik on analysis of variance. These supplements were written to closely coordinate with this text and are available from Pine Forge Press.

**Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava : University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee**

Leon-Guerrero, Anna : Pacific Lutheran University

**1. The What and the Why of Statistics **

The Research Process

Asking Research Questions

The Role of Theory

Formulating the Hyupotheses

Collecting Data

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Looking at Social Differences

** 2. Organization of Information: Frequency Distributions **

Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Percentage Distributions

Comparisons

Statistics in Practice:

Labor Force Participation of Native Americans

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Cumulative Distributions

Rates

Statistics in Practice: Marriage and Divorce Rates over Time

Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables

** 3. Graphic Presentation **

The Pie Chart: The Race and Ethnicity of the Eldersly

The Bar Graph: The Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly

The Statistical Map: the Geographic Distribution of the Elderly

The Histogram

Statistics in Practice: The "Graying" of America

The Frequency Polygon

Time Series Charts

Distortions in Graphs

Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance

** 4. Measures of Central Tendency **

The Mode

The Median

The Mean

The Shape of the Distribution: The Experience of Traumatic Events

Consideration for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

** 5. Measures of Variability **

The Importance of Measuring Variability

The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV)

The Range

The Interquartile Range: Increases in Elderly Populations

The Box Plot

The Variance and the Standard Deviation: Changes in the Nursing Home Population

Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation

Reading the Research Literature: Gender Differences in Caregiving

** 6. Relationships Between Two Variables: Cross-Tabulation **

Independent and Dependent Variables

How to Construct a Bivariate Table:

Race and Home Ownership

How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table

How to Deal with Ambiguous Relationships

Between Variables

Reading the Research Literature: Medicaid Use Among the Elderly

The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship

Elaboration

Statistics in Practice: Family Support for the Transition from High School

** 7. Measures of Association for Nominal and Ordinal Variables **

Proportional Reduction of Error and Degree of Association

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association

Calculating Gamma

Using Ordinal Measures with Dichotomous Variables

Reading the Research Literature: Worldview and Abortion Beliefs

** 8. Bivariaate Regression and Correlation **

The Scatter Diagram

Linear Relations and Prediction Rules

Statistics in Practice: GNP and Willingness to Volunteer Time for Environmental Protection

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Statistics in Practice: Teen Pregnancy and Inequality

Statistics in Practice: The Marriage Penalty in Earnings

** 9. Organization of Information and Measurement of Relationships: A Review of Descriptive Data Analysis **

Descriptive Data Analysis for Nominal Variables

Statistics in Practice: Gender and Local Political Party Activism

Descriptive Data Analysis for Ordinal Variables

Descriptive Data Analysis for Interval-Ratio Variables

Statistics in Practice: Education and Income

** 10. The Normal Distribution **

Properties of the Normal Distribution

Standard (Z) Scores

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

The Structure of the Standard Normal Table

Transforming Z Scores into Proportions (or Percentages)

** 11. Sampling and Sampling Distribution **

Aims of Sampling

Some Basic Principles of Probability

Probability Sampling

The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

** 12. Estimation **

Estimation Defined

Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means

Statistics in Practice Hispanic Migration and Earnings

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Statistics in Practice: Should Affirmative Action Programs Be Increased?

** 13. Testing Hypotheses **

Part I: The Basics

Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Determining What Is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

The t Statistic and Estimating the Standard Error

The t Distribution and the Degrees of Freedom

Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of White Women

Part II: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples

The Assumption of Independent Samples

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

The Sampling Distribution of the Differences Between Means

The Five Steps in Hypotheses Testing about Difference between Means; A Summary

Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of Asia American Men

Testing the Significance of the Difference

Between Two Sample Proportions

Statistics in Practice: Equaliziang Income

Statistics in Practice: Gender and Abortion Attitudes

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

** 14. The Chi-Square Test **

The Concepts of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square

The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance

Statistics in Practice: Social Class and Health

Reading the Research Literature: Sibling Cooperation and Academic Achievement

** 15. Reviewing Inferential Statistics **

Normal Distribtuions

Sampling: The Case of AIDS

Estimation

Statistics in Practice: The War on Drugs

The Process of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Statistics in Practice: Education and Employment

Appendix A: Table of Random Numbers

Appendix B: The Standard Normal Table

Appendix C: Distribution of t

Appendix D: Distribution of Chi-Square

Appendix E: Distribution of F

Appendix F: A Basic Math Review

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

Index/Glossary