Adopted at a wide range of schools across the country, from Eastern Kentucky University, to the University of Michigan, to Bismarck State College, to Northwestern University! Features of this new edition include the following... Consistently throughout the book, discussion of statistical techniques and concepts has been edited and streamlined, and the overall presentation is tighter. The majority of GSS94 chapter examples have been updated to GSS96. All Census data has been updated to 1998 sources. Chapters 13 and 14 have been revised and combined into one chapter. The concept of critical value of t has been eliminated, as well as one sample Z-test. Assessment of the probability of obtained t-test has been introduced, and the 6 step model has been modified to a 5 step model. Additional end of chapter exercises have been added, on topics such as international data, criminal justice, and the elderly. New and revised SPSS end of chapter exercises have been modified to fit GSS96 datasets. Two modules or subsets have been created in the GSS96 Datasets for SPSS Exercises -- one for family/women's issues; the other for diversity/race issues."Not only shows how integrating issues of diversity can be done in a way that furthers the traditional objectives of statistics courses, but also in a way that makes science a warmer classroom and career climate for women and students of color. This book is pathbreaking." Kate Berheide, Skidmore College "The exercises are excellent; I consider them a particular strength of the text. Plus the use of real examples gives relevancy and meaning to the concepts." Holly S. Gimpel, Saint Joseph's College.
Preface CHAPTER ONE: THE WHAT AND WHY OF STATISTICS The Research Process Asking Research Questions The Role of Theory Formulating the Hypothesis Collecting Data Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypothesis Looking at Social Differences CHAPTER TWO: ORGANIZATION AND INFORMATION Frequency Distributions Proportions and Percentages Percentage Distributions Comparisons Statistics in Practice: Labor Force Participation Among Latinos The Construction of Frequency Distributions Cumulative Distributions Statistics in Practice: Marriage and Divorce Rates Over Time Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables Conclusion CHAPTER THREE: GRAPHIC PRESENTATION The Pie Chart: Race and Ethnicity of the Elderly The Bar Graph: Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly The Statistical Map: The Distribution of the Elderly The Histogram Statistics in Practice: The ''Graying'' of America The Frequency Polygon Time Series Charts Distortions in Graphics Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance CHAPTER FOUR: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY The Mode The Median The Mean The Shape of the Distribution Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency CHAPTER FIVE: MEASURES OF VARIABILITY The Importance of Measuring Variability The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV): A Brief Introduction The Range The Interquartile Range The Box Plot The Variance and the Standard Deviation Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation Reading the Research Literature: Ethnicity and College Aspirations and Expectations CHAPTER SIX: THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Properties of the Normal Distribution Standard (Z) Scores The Standard Normal Distribution The Standard Normal Table A Final Note CHAPTER SEVEN: SAMPLING AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION Aims of Sampling Some Basic Principles of Probability Probability Sampling The Concept of Sampling Distributions The Sampling Distribution of the Mean The Central Limit Theorem CHAPTER EIGHT: ESTIMATION Estimation Defined Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means Statistics in Practice: Hispanic Migration and Earnings Confidence Intervals for Proportions Statistics in Practice: The Democratic Presidential Nomination CHAPTER NINE: TESTING HYPOTHESES Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses Determining What is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary Errors in Hypothesis Testing Testing Hypotheses About Two Samples: Education Attainment of Blacks and Hispanics The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary Testing the Significance of the Difference Between Two Sample Proportions CHAPTER TEN: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO VARIABLES Independent and Dependent Variables How to Construct a Bivariate Table: Race and Home Ownership How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table How to Deal with Ambiguous Relationships Between Two Variables Reading the Research Literature: Place of Death in America The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship Elaboration Statistics in Practice: Family Support fort he Transition from High School CHAPTER 11: CHI-SQUARE The Concept of the Chi Square Statistical Test The Concept of Statistical Independence The Structure of Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance Statistics in Practice: Education and Health CHAPTER TWELVE: MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION FOR NOMINAL AND ORDINAL VARIABLES Proportional Reduction of Error: A Brief Introduction Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association Calcu
Adopted at a wide range of schools across the country, from Eastern Kentucky University, to the University of Michigan, to Bismarck State College, to Northwestern University! Features of this new edition include the following... Consistently throughout the book, discussion of statistical techniques and concepts has been edited and streamlined, and the overall presentation is tighter. The majority of GSS94 chapter examples have been updated to GSS96. All Census data has been updated to 1998 sources. Chapters 13 and 14 have been revised and combined into one chapter. The concept of critical value of t has been eliminated, as well as one sample Z-test. Assessment of the probability of obtained t-test has been introduced, and the 6 step model has been modified to a 5 step model. Additional end of chapter exercises have been added, on topics such as international data, criminal justice, and the elderly. New and revised SPSS end of chapter exercises have been modified to fit GSS96 datasets. Two modules or subsets have been created in the GSS96 Datasets for SPSS Exercises -- one for family/women's issues; the other for diversity/race issues."Not only shows how integrating issues of diversity can be done in a way that furthers the traditional objectives of statistics courses, but also in a way that makes science a warmer classroom and career climate for women and students of color. This book is pathbreaking." Kate Berheide, Skidmore College "The exercises are excellent; I consider them a particular strength of the text. Plus the use of real examples gives relevancy and meaning to the concepts." Holly S. Gimpel, Saint Joseph's College.
Table of Contents
Preface CHAPTER ONE: THE WHAT AND WHY OF STATISTICS The Research Process Asking Research Questions The Role of Theory Formulating the Hypothesis Collecting Data Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypothesis Looking at Social Differences CHAPTER TWO: ORGANIZATION AND INFORMATION Frequency Distributions Proportions and Percentages Percentage Distributions Comparisons Statistics in Practice: Labor Force Participation Among Latinos The Construction of Frequency Distributions Cumulative Distributions Statistics in Practice: Marriage and Divorce Rates Over Time Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables Conclusion CHAPTER THREE: GRAPHIC PRESENTATION The Pie Chart: Race and Ethnicity of the Elderly The Bar Graph: Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly The Statistical Map: The Distribution of the Elderly The Histogram Statistics in Practice: The ''Graying'' of America The Frequency Polygon Time Series Charts Distortions in Graphics Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance CHAPTER FOUR: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY The Mode The Median The Mean The Shape of the Distribution Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency CHAPTER FIVE: MEASURES OF VARIABILITY The Importance of Measuring Variability The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV): A Brief Introduction The Range The Interquartile Range The Box Plot The Variance and the Standard Deviation Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation Reading the Research Literature: Ethnicity and College Aspirations and Expectations CHAPTER SIX: THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION Properties of the Normal Distribution Standard (Z) Scores The Standard Normal Distribution The Standard Normal Table A Final Note CHAPTER SEVEN: SAMPLING AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION Aims of Sampling Some Basic Principles of Probability Probability Sampling The Concept of Sampling Distributions The Sampling Distribution of the Mean The Central Limit Theorem CHAPTER EIGHT: ESTIMATION Estimation Defined Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means Statistics in Practice: Hispanic Migration and Earnings Confidence Intervals for Proportions Statistics in Practice: The Democratic Presidential Nomination CHAPTER NINE: TESTING HYPOTHESES Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses Determining What is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary Errors in Hypothesis Testing Testing Hypotheses About Two Samples: Education Attainment of Blacks and Hispanics The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary Testing the Significance of the Difference Between Two Sample Proportions CHAPTER TEN: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO VARIABLES Independent and Dependent Variables How to Construct a Bivariate Table: Race and Home Ownership How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table How to Deal with Ambiguous Relationships Between Two Variables Reading the Research Literature: Place of Death in America The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship Elaboration Statistics in Practice: Family Support fort he Transition from High School CHAPTER 11: CHI-SQUARE The Concept of the Chi Square Statistical Test The Concept of Statistical Independence The Structure of Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance Statistics in Practice: Education and Health CHAPTER TWELVE: MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION FOR NOMINAL AND ORDINAL VARIABLES Proportional Reduction of Error: A Brief Introduction Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association Calcu