Full examples using both the Booch and OMT methods
Step-by-step instructions for using Rational Rose 3.0 to construct OO models
Discussion of project management, how to identify key artifacts, and systematic application of reuse
Edition/Copyright:96 Cover: Paperback Publisher:Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc. Published: 07/26/1996 International: No
This book provides practical guidance on the construction of object-oriented systems using the Booch and OMT methods of software development. Its specific goals are
To provide a sound understanding of the fundamental principles of the Booch and OMT methods
To give examples of the usage of the key elements of the notations
To teach the application of the Booch and OMT methods by using a sample problem domain
This book is written for the computer professional as well as for the student. It is suitable for use in professional seminars and individual study as well as in undergraduate and graduate courses. It shows how to
Use the Booch and OMT methods effectively to solve real problems
Develop a system from requirements to detailed design by using an object-oriented approach
Because this is a case study, the reader should have a general understanding of or be in the process of learning the approach, the specialized terms, and the notation of the Booch and/or OMT methods. This book also assumes some familiarity with basic software engineering concepts.
This book takes a practical approach to teaching the Booch and OMT methods. It uses a case study to show the analysis and design of an application. We chose a course registration system for a university as the problem domain because it is easily understood and not specific to any field of computer science. The reader can concentrate on the specifics of modeling the domain in the Booch and OMT methods, rather than investing time in understanding an unfamiliar problem domain.The problem is treated seriously enough to give the reader practical experience with most of the steps of the Booch and OMT methods and the feeling of solving a real problem, without being so realistic that the reader is bogged down in details. Thus many interesting and perhaps necessary requirements, considerations, and constraints were put aside to produce a simplified, yet useful case study fitting the scope of this book. With the goal of usefulness in mind, the exercises have been crafted to make the methods clear to a practitioner's eye.
The methods are described as a series of sequential steps. This approach gives the new user a framework for developing object-oriented applications and provides advanced techniques for more experienced users. As users become fluent in the methods, they will be able to move back and forth through the steps, and often combine several steps, until the desired result is achieved.
For additional details on the evolving Booch and OMT methods, or on applying them to your application, you should consider the training and mentoring services offered by both the Lockheed Martin Advanced Concepts Center (ACC) and Rational Software Corporation.
Any software development method is best supported by a tool, and this book makes use of the tool Rational Rose 3.0. Each step in either method includes a description of how to use Rational Rose 3.0 to complete the step. This information is presented in separate text boxes provided as an aid to users of Rational Rose 3.0. To obtain a copy of Rational Rose 3.0, contact either of the above companies.
The book is divided into three sections followed by a set of appendices. The first section contains case-study background information that is applicable to both the Booch and OMT methods. The second section contains chapters devoted to the Booch method, and the third section covers the OMT method.
The first chapter discusses information related to the course registration system case study that is used throughout the book.
The Booch Method
Chapter 2 establishes the principles of the Booch method. It summarizes the steps of the method, and discusses the deliverables of each step.
Chapter 3 discusses possible sources of information about the requirements of a system and shows the creation of a context diagram. It also describes the problem domain of the course registration system used throughout the book.
Chapters 4 through 9 describe the steps of analysis in detail. Chapter 4 discusses how to find, define, and document key classes of the domain. Chapter 5 shows how to define the structure and behavior of the system by looking at the use cases of the system. Chapter 6 illustrates the definition of relationships between classes in the system. Chapter 7 discusses the discovery of generalized classes, or superclasses, and of specialized classes, or subclasses. Chapter 8 illustrates the use of Harel state transition diagrams for classes with significant dynamic behavior. Finally, Chapter 9 presents ways to validate an analysis model.
Chapters 10 through 12 describe how an analysis model matures into a design model. Chapter 10 shows how to organize the design into a structured architecture. Chapter 11 details the steps involved in iteration planning. Chapter 12 discusses the use of commercial class libraries during development.
Chapters 13 through 15 describe the evolution of a system under development using an iterative and incremental approach. Chapter 13 discusses building an iteration. Chapter 14 illustrates the steps necessary to build the next iteration. Finally, Chapter 15 details team development procedures.
The OMT Method
Chapter 16 establishes the principles of the OMT method. It summarizes the steps of the method, the models, and the deliverables of each step.
Chapter 17 explains how OMT can help you understand the need for a system and to systematically obtain the outline and form of new systems. Showing how to create context diagrams and high-level use cases, this chapter introduces the problem domain of the course registration system and the operation concepts of the solution approach used throughout the book.
Domain analysis, the systematic exploration of the world, is examined in Chapters 18 through 21. The core modeling approaches of OMT, the class diagram (Chapter 18), associations (Chapter 19), operations and attributes (Chapter 20), and state diagrams (Chapter 21), are also covered.
In Chapters 22 through 25, we further analyze the specific application. Application classes (Chapter 22), such as surrogates, controllers, and views are created, and use cases (Chapter 23) are further explored to capture the specific user-visible requirements of the system. Chapter 24 discusses the discovery of generalized classes, or superclasses, and of specialized classes, or subclasses. In Chapter 25, the functional model is introduced to formally capture lower-level behavior.Chapter 26 discusses techniques to test the analysis.
System architecture and policy are captured using techniques described in Chapter 27.
The details of object design are captured using diagrams such as the object interaction diagrams, as shown in Chapter 28. Chapter 29 discusses the use of commercial class libraries during development. As object design progresses, the details of the objects are specified. Chapter 30 gives an overview of some of the considerations of object design and begins to discuss implementation.
After the discussion in Chapter 30 of implementation, Chapter 31 illustrates the steps necessary to build the next iteration using round-trip engineering. Finally, Chapter 32 details team development procedures.
Appendix A gives a detailed definition of the Booch notation.
Appendix B gives a detailed definition of the OMT notation.
Appendix C shows a sample of the C++ code generated by the Rational Rose 3.0 tool for one class in the course registration system.
Using this book
You can read straight through this manual to obtain the fundamental concepts of the Booch and OMT methods and a sense of how the object-oriented software engineering process works. Using the book along with Rational Rose 3.0 will allow you to work some of the examples and develop a more detailed understanding of the methods.
We would like to thank the following people for their contributions to the content, style, presentation, and writing of this book. Special thanks to Loren Archer, Alex Baran, Grady Booch, Elizabeth Bufo, Mike Duffy, Frank DuPont, Jim Ford, Adam Frankel, Burton Goldfield, Kim Heisman, Peter Luckey, Phil Magrogan, Sue Mickel, Paul Mims, Sylvia Pacheco, Jim Rumbaugh, Jim Schardt, Tom Schultz, Bill Snizek, Mark Sutton, Kurt TeKolste, Chuck von Flotow, and Daryl Winters for all their inputs.
View Table of Contents
1. Case Study Background.
The Importance of Proper Conceptualization. The Conceptualization Process. Case Study Background. Business Goals and Needs. Risks for the Course Registration Problem. Summary. Glossary.
2. Overview of the Booch Method.
The Booch Method. Why Process Is Needed. The Role of Notation. Iterative and Incremental Life Cycle. The Macro Process. The Micro Process. Discovery, Invention, and Implementation * Summary * Glossary.
3. Conceptualization: Defining the Problem.
Defining the Problem. Identifying the Actors. Drawing a Context Diagram. Operations Concepts. Problem Statement. ESU Course Registration Problem Statement. Summary. Glossary.
4. Analysis: Finding Classes.
Use Cases and Scenarios. Scenarios and Classes. Initial Class Diagram. Notes. The Model Dictionary. Updated Context Diagram. Summary. Glossary.
5. Analysis: Attributes and Operations.
Behavior and Structure. Diagramming Scenarios and Describing Object Behavior. Specifying Attributes for Classes. Showing Attributes and Operations on a Class. Diagram. Summary. Glossary.
6. Analysis: Defining Relationships.
Object Interaction. Defining Associations. Defining Role Names. Defining Aggregations. Multiplicity for Associations and Aggregations. Attributed Associations. Reflexive Associations and Aggregations. Relationships in the ESU Course Registration Problem. Summary. Glossary.
7. Analysis: Inheritance.
Using Generalization and Specialization to Find Superclasses and Subclasses. Inheritance in the ESU Course Registration Problem. Summary. Glossary.
8. Analysis: Object Behavior.
Modeling Object Behavior Using State Transition Diagrams. Start and Stop States. State Transition Diagrams for the ESU Course Registration. Problem. Summary. Glossary.
9. Analysis: Consistency Checking and Model Validation.
The Need for Consistency Checking and Model Validation. Scenario Walkthrough. Event Tracing. Review of the Model Dictionary. Requirements Traceability. Summary. Glossary.
10. Design: Defining an Architecture.
The Need for Architecture. The "4+1" View of Architecture. The Architecture Team. Class Categories. The Categories in the ESU Course Registration Problem. Tactical Design Decisions. Tactical Design Decisions in the Course Registration Problem. Moving Classes to Categories. Subsystems. Subsystems in the Course Registration Problem. The Process Diagram. The Process Diagram for the Course Registration. Problem. Summary. Glossary.
11. Design: Iteration Planning.
Planning Iterations Using Use Cases. Iteration Planning for the Course Registration Problem. Summary. Glossary.
12. Design: Use of Commercial Class Libraries.
Picking a Commercial Class Library. Adding the Commercial Classes to the Model. Summary. Glossary.
13. Evolution: Building an Architectural Release.
Application of the Micro Process. Identifying Classes and Objects. Identifying Class and Object Semantics. Identifying Class and Object Relationships. Specifying Class and Object Implementations. Code Generation. Documentation for the Release. Summary. Glossary.
14. Evolution: Building the Next Release.
Using Reverse-Engineering to Set the Stage for the Next Architectural Release. Summary. Glossary.
15. Evolution: Team Development with Rational Rose.
Parallel Development and Class Categories. Integration with Configuration-Management Systems. Summary. Glossary.
16. Overview of the OMT Method.
The Object Modeling Technique. Fundamentals of OMT. The OMT Process. OMT System Development Activities. OMT System Development Strategies. Summary. Glossary.
17. Conceptualization: Defining the Need.
High-Level Domain Analysis. Identifying the Actors. High-Level Use-Case Analysis. Context Diagram. Operations Concepts. Problem Statement. ESU Course Registration Problem Statement. Summary. Glossary.
18. Domain Analysis: Finding Classes.
Domain Models. Finding Candidate Classes. The Model Dictionary. Summary. Glossary.
19. Domain Analysis: Capturing Associations.
Associations. Multiplicity and Roles. Aggregation. Notes and Constraints. Remaining Domain Analysis. Summary. Glossary.
20. Domain Analysis: Attributes and Operations.
Class Features. Attributes. Operations. Link Attributes. Qualifiers. Summary. Glossary.
21. Domain Analysis: State Modeling.
Life-Cycle Modeling. Sample University Object Life Cycle. State Definitions. System States. Substates. Summary. Glossary.
22. Application Analysis.
Application Analysis. Application Objects. Domain Analysis Refinement. Use-Case Refinement. Surrogates. System and Application Controllers. Views and Presentations. Interfaces. Summary. Glossary.
23. Application Use-Case Analysis.
Use Cases. Scenarios. Message Trace Diagrams. Scenario Analysis. Summary. Glossary.
Generalization. The Generalization Process. Generalization in the Course Registration Problem. Summary. Glossary.
The Need for Testing. Model Walkthroughs. Model Dictionary Checking. Use-Case Scenario Walkthroughs. Model Consistency. Path and Query Testing. Requirements Traceability. User and Client Involvement. Summary. Glossary.
27. System Design.
The Need for System Design. Partitioning into Subsystems. Allocating Subsystems. Policy Decisions. Additional System Design Decisions. Release Planning. Summary. Glossary.
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