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PURPOSES OF THIS BOOK
I have been a counselor educator for more than 20 years, have taught many courses on systems and strategies of counseling and psychotherapy, and have supervised hundreds of women and men seeking to become counselors or psychologists or to be licensed or certified in those professions. Many of the students and professionals I have taught and supervised have complained that their years of training had left them ill-prepared for clinical work. To some extent, their concerns reflected the understandable self-doubts of beginning clinicians who recognize the importance of their work and want to help their clients as much as possible. However, I have also heard them worry about how to integrate theory and practice, when to use the treatment approaches they have learned, and what they should actually do when facing clients.
I have designed this book to address some of those concerns. My objectives include providing a clear, concise, meaningful, coherent, and useful overview of both well-established and emerging approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. In addition, I have worked to bridge the gap between theory and practice and to teach the salient skills associated with each treatment system. For example, rather than present each treatment approach in isolation and separate theory and practice, I group treatment systems according to whether their primary focus is on background and context, emotions and sensations, thoughts, or actions. These four areas of focus can be represented by the acronym BETA (background, emotions, thoughts, actions). Introductory chapters on each of these areas help readers to understand the commonalities among theories in each of these groups and determine which approach is best suited for them and their clients.
Each chapter includes a skill development section that teaches one or more key skills associated with the treatment system under review. For example, Chapter 3, which introduces theories emphasizing background, teaches readers how to conduct an intake interview; Chapter 22, on brief solution-based therapy, teaches goal setting; Chapter 7, on the developmental/psychodynamic theorists, introduces interpretation; and Chapter 15, on theories emphasizing thoughts, teaches ways of eliciting and disputing dysfunctional cognitions. By Chapter 25, which presents the last section on skill development and teaches the process of termination, readers should have developed the basic clinical skills they will need as counselors or psychotherapists.
This book focuses primarily on systems of counseling and psychotherapy that are designed for treatment of individuals. Many of these approaches, of course, are also useful in the treatment of groups and families, as we discuss throughout the book. However, treatment approaches that are used almost exclusively in group or family counseling are beyond our scope and should be covered in separate courses and texts on couples and family treatment and group therapy.
ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK
This book consists of 7 parts and 26 chapters. Later in the preface, I will discuss ways to use this book in courses on theories and techniques of counseling and psychotherapy.
Part One, which includes Chapters 1 and 2, presents the BETA acronym (background, emotions, thoughts, actions) around which this book is organized. These chapters introduce client and clinician characteristics associated with successful counseling and psychotherapy regardless of the clinician's theoretical approach. Ethical considerations essential to effective treatment are also reviewed. In addition, I introduce the Diaz family--Edie, her husband Roberto, and their daughter Ava--who appear
throughout the book to illustrate treatment systems and strategies. Skill development sections in Part One focus on role induction, self-assessment, and development of a sound therapeutic alliance.
Part Two focuses on systems of counseling and psychotherapy that emphasize background and context. Such systems maintain that, to promote insight and change, practitioners must address people's histories and early experiences. Chapter 3 examines the importance of background in understanding and helping people and teaches how to use questions and how to conduct an intake interview to obtain background information. Chapter 4 provides an overview of psychoanalysis as developed by Sigmund Freud. Skill development here focuses on using a lifeline to gather background information. Chapter 5 considers Individual Psychology, the approach developed by Alfred Adler, and teaches how to use early recollections to gather information and promote client self-awareness. Chapter 6 introduces Analytical Psychology as developed by Carl Jung and considers the skill of Jungian dreamwork. Chapter 7 discusses the developmental/psychodynamic theorists whose work has built and expanded on Freud's landmark work, including Anna Freud, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan, Melanie Klein, Helene Deutsch, Heinz Kohut, and others. Although many training programs give little attention to these theorists, some understanding of their contributions gives clinicians both depth and breadth in their knowledge of well-established treatment systems and emerging approaches. This chapter also considers the skill of interpretation. Chapter 8 discusses transactional analysis, developed by Eric Berne, and reviews the skill of using strokes and injunctions to facilitate change. Chapter 9 provides information on brief psychodynamic psychotherapy and reviews the skill of identifying people's focal concerns.
Part Three focuses on systems of counseling and psychotherapy that emphasize the importance of identifying and changing emotions and sensations. Chapter 10 considers the importance of emotions in people's lives and teaches the skill of reflecting meaning and emotions. Chapter 11 discusses person-centered counseling as developed by Carl Rogers and examines the skill of clinician self-disclosure. Chapter 12 focuses on existential therapy and reviews the skill of values clarification. Chapter 13 introduces Gestalt therapy, developed primarily by Fritz Perls. The skill development section offers information on the Gestalt approach to exploring dreams. Chapter 14 reviews emerging approaches that emphasize emotions and sensation, including narrative therapy, feminist therapy, constructivist therapy, transpersonal therapy, and focusing, and considers the skill of using visualization in treatment.
Part Four focuses on treatment systems that emphasize identification and modification of dysfunctional thoughts. Chapter 15 reviews the importance of cognitions in people's lives and discusses ways of eliciting and disputing self-destructive cognitions. Chapter 16 focuses on cognitive therapy, developed primarily by Aaron Beck, and considers the use of homework in treatment, an essential skill of cognitive therapists. Chapter 17 focuses on rational emotive behavior therapy as developed by Albert Ellis and teaches the use of rational-emotive imagery. Chapter 18 reviews emerging approaches emphasizing thoughts, including neurolinguistic programming, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and thought-field therapy, and considers the skill of anchoring.
Part Five discusses treatment systems emphasizing assessment of actions and strategies designed to change behavior. Chapter 19 presents an overview of the research on the importance of actions and behavior in people's lives and considers the skill of assessing behaviors. Chapter 20 focuses on both behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches to treatment and reviews systematic desensitization, a powerful tool for effecting behavioral change. Chapter 21 describes reality therapy, developed primarily by William Glasser, and examines the skill of caring confrontation. Chapter 22 reviews solution-based brief treatment approaches along with the skill of goal setting, which is essential in successful treatment.
Part Six discusses eclectic and integrated treatment systems, which draw on a range of theoretical approaches to develop an individualized treatment plan. Chapter 23 presents an overview of integrated and eclectic treatment approaches along with the skill of treatment planning. Chapter 24 provides information about specific integrated and eclectic approaches, focusing particularly on multimodal therapy (developed by Arnold Lazarus) and dialectical counseling and therapy (developed primarily
by Allen Ivey and Sandra Rigazio-DiGilio). The chapter also considers ways of developing a BASIC LD. profile as it is used in multimodal therapy.
Part Seven concludes the book. Chapter 25 presents detailed information on clinician and client characteristics associated with successful treatment and discusses commonalities of effective treatment. It also considers the skill of terminating the treatment process. Chapter 26 synthesizes material by reviewing the major treatment systems according to a structured format. It also provides a questionnaire to help readers identify which type of clinical approach seems most appropriate for them to use.
Each chapter that presents a treatment system follows the same organization to facilitate comparison and ease of use. The chapter begins with a brief overview of the system and a biographical sketch of its developer, highlighting any clear connections between the person's background and the theory. The next two sections present the treatment approach, describing its theoretical concepts as well as its goals, the therapeutic alliance, and specific related strategies. Subsequent sections discuss the approach's application to diverse populations, its current use, research substantiating its value, its strengths and limitations, and its contributions to counseling and psychotherapy. A summary highlights important aspects of the approach, and the chapter ends with a list of recommended readings.
Accompanying each chapter is a series of exercises divided into three categories: those for large groups, for small groups, and for individuals. The exercises are designed both to promote understanding of each system of counseling and psychotherapy and to encourage development and practice of the skills reviewed in the chapter. These exercises will be useful in the classroom and will also help individual readers develop self-awareness, knowledge, and skills.
Case studies are another useful feature. As I have mentioned, members of the Diaz family illustrate the treatment approaches, thus allowing readers to see how theories apply to people of both genders, different ages, and different cultural backgrounds. Although each case study is complete in itself, reading all of them provides an overview of treatment for these family members.
Like most books on theories and techniques of counseling and psychotherapy, this one considers the application of each treatment system to people from diverse backgrounds. In addition, it considers the application of each approach to the treatment of various mental disorders as described in the American Psychological Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Because diagnosis has become an essential tool for mental health professionals, a discussion of which system is most likely to effectively treat which mental disorders should help clinicians develop successful treatment plans for their clients.
USES OF THIS BOOK
This book has been designed for flexibility and ease of use. Although each college and university has its own curriculum and required courses, this book can be adapted to almost any curriculum in counseling and psychology. Following are a few suggestions for using the book:
Chapter 1: Overview of the Book
Chapter 2: Overview of Contexts of Effective Treatment
Chapter 3: Overview of Background and Context
Chapter 4: Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
Chapter 5: Alfred Adler and Individual Psychology
Chapter 10: Overview of Emotions and Sensations
Chapter 11: Carl Rogers and Person-Centered Counseling
Chapter 13: Gestalt Therapy
Chapter 15: Overview of Thoughts
Chapter 16: Aaron Beck and Cognitive Therapy
Chapter 17: Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Chapter 19: Overview of Actions
Chapter 20: Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Chapter 21: Reality Therapy
Chapter 26: Choosing an Effective Treatment Approach
Feel free to be creative and innovative in using this book--and if you come up with some good ideas, please share them with me at LindaSeligmanCa3aol.com.
I received a great deal of personal and professional support in writing this book. I am especially thankful to Lynn Field, M.A., L.P C., psychotherapist at the Women's Center in Vienna, Virginia, and doctoral student in counseling at George Mason University. As my graduate assistant, she made an invaluable contribution to this book through her research and editing skills as well as her good judgment, clear feedback, and encouragement. (Her chocolate-chip cookies also helped.) Thanks also to Carol J. Kaffenberger, M.Ed., Ph.D., an educator and elementary school counselor for 25 years, and currently an associate professor in the Counseling and Development Program at George Mason University. Her encouragement and help with research on this book as well as her contributions to my other professional projects have meant a great deal to me.
Rosanne Shepler, L.P.C., analyst-in-training at the C. G. Jung Institute of New York, with a private practice in Vienna, Virginia, offered helpful suggestions and additions to the chapter on Jungian analytical psychology. Janice Miner Holden, Ed.D., professor in the College of Education at the University of North Texas at Denton, carefully reviewed and made knowledgeable additions to the section on transpersonal therapy. Nancy Newport, L.P.C., L.M.ET, a psychotherapist in private practice in Fairfax, Virginia, and a trainer in brief therapy approaches, reviewed and made valuable suggestions for the chapter on solution-based brief therapy. Francine Shapiro, Ph.D., who developed eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), read and discussed with me the section on EMDR. Robert E. Wubbolding, Ed.D., director of the Center for Reality Therapy in Cincinnati, Ohio, training director at the William Glasser Institute, and faculty member at Xavier University in Cincinnati, reviewed and offered useful suggestions for the chapter on reality therapy.
The faculty, administrators, and staff of the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University, particularly Dean Gary Galluzzo, Associate Dean Martin Ford, Dr. Gerald Wallace, and Janet Holmes provided time and support that facilitated my work on this book. Thanks also to Kevin Davis, executive editor at Merrill/Prentice Hall, who invited me to write the book and provided much assistance along the way. I am also grateful to the many students and clients I have met over the years and from whom I have learned so much.
I would like to thank the colleagues who reviewed this edition: Deborah Barlieb, Kutztown University; Michael Duffy, Texas A&M University; Harold Engen, University of Iowa; Bette Katsekas, University of Southern Maine; and Michael Scheel, University of Utah.
Finally, special thanks to my husband, Robert M. Zeskind, who is always there to help me find balance and joy in my life.
Seligman, Linda : George Mason University
PART I. PROVIDING EFFECTIVE COUNSELING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY.
1. Overview of the Book.
2. Overview of Contexts of Effective Treatment.
PART II. TREATMENT SYSTEMS EMPHASIZING BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT.
3. Overview of Background and Context.
4. Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis.
5. Alfred Adler and Individual Psychology.
6. Carl Jung and Jungian Analytical Psychology.
7. Developmental/Psychodynamic Theorists.
8. Transactional Analysis.
9. Brief Psychodynamic Therapy.
PART III. TREATMENT SYSTEMS EMPHASIZING EMOTIONS AND SENSATIONS.
10. Overview of Emotions and Sensations.
11. Carl Rogers and Person-Centered Counseling.
12. Existential Therapy.
13. Gestalt Therapy.
14. Emerging Approaches Emphasizing Emotions and Sensations.
PART IV. TREATMENT SYSTEMS EMPHASIZING THOUGHTS.
15. Overview of Thoughts.
16. Aaron Beck and Cognitive Therapy.
17. Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
18. Emerging Approaches Emphasizing Thoughts.
PART V. TREATMENT SYSTEMS EMPHASIZING ACTIONS.
19. Overview of Actions.
20. Behavior Therapy and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy.
21. Reality Therapy.
22. Solution-Based Brief Therapy.
PART VI. INTEGRATED AND ECLECTIC TREATMENT SYSTEMS.
23. Overview of Integrated and Eclectic Treatment Systems.
24. Theories of Integrated and Eclectic Treatment.
PART VII. MAXIMIZING TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS.
25. Contexts of Treatment Revisited.
26. Choosing an Effective Treatment Approach.
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