Summary: Thinking Critically, 8/e, teaches the fundamental thinking, reasoning, reading, and writing abilities that students need for academic success. The text begins with basic skills related to personal experience and then carefully progresses to the more sophisticated reasoning skills required for abstract, academic contexts. Thinking Critically introduces students to the cognitive process while teaching them to develop their higher-order thinking and language abilities. ...show more
A number of distinctive characteristics make the text an effective tool for both instructors and students. Exercises, discussion topics, and writing assignments encourage active participation, stimulating students to critically examine their own and others' thinking. Thinking Critically, 8/e, is a proven, classroom-tested vehicle for presenting the thinking process to students and helping them develop sophisticated critical-thinking and analytical abilities.
The enduring themes surrounding the events of September 11 have been infused throughout the text, encouraging students' (and faculty's) critical reflection and analysis. The text presents a global view by providing news articles and speeches from other countries, allowing students to compare these views with U.S. perspectives. Themes and dilemmas explored include patriotism, individual freedom versus national security, and the ways in which different cultures perceive each other.
New! Two Portfolios of Color Images--"Thinking Critically About Images: Truth and Reality in Popular Culture" and "Thinking Critically About Images: Truth and Reality in the Media"--help students improve their ability to think critically about visual information. From advertising to current events to web sites, these sections provoke careful and creative analysis of the ways our values, beliefs, and perceptions are influenced (and, occasionally, manipulated) by visual information.
New! Many Thinking Activities now appear in the text and link students to the book's companion Web site. These activities, indicated by a distinctive icon in the text, encourage students to move seamlessly from the classroom to the world beyond, offering additional links and web-based activities to enhance their critical and creative engagement with the exercises.
New and expanded! Forty in-text readings--and dozens more on the companion web site--reflect the latest thinking on cross-disciplinary topics such as human cloning, globalization, the environment, and challenges to civil liberty, giving instructors more choice and currency while retaining those readings most popular with users.
New! A Glossary helps students remember and review not only critical thinking terms but also Internet terms, supporting less computer-savvy students as they work through the Internet activities.
Living an "Examined" Life Working Toward Goals Thinking Passage: From the Autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X with Alex Haley Discovering "Who" You Are Living Creatively Thinking Passage: "Original Spin" by Lesley Dormen and Peter Edidin Final Thoughts
2. Thinking Critically
Thinking Actively Carefully Exploring Situations with Questions Thinking Independently Viewing Situations from Different Perspectives Supporting Diverse Perspectives with Reasons and Evidence Discussing Ideas in an Organized Way Becoming a Critical Thinker Creating a Thinking World Analyzing Issues Thinking Passages: Jurors' and Judges' Reasoning Processes "Jurors Hear Evidence and Turn It into Stories" by Daniel Goleman "Judicial Reasoning Is All Too Human" by Patricia Cohen
3. Solving Problems
Thinking Critically About Problems Introduction to Solving Problems Solving Complex Problems Solving Nonpersonal Problems Thinking Passages: Liberty Versus Security "Liberty v Security" by The Economist "National I.D. Cards: One Size Fits All" by Daniel J. Wakin "Living Under an Electronic Eye" by Lisa Guernsey "Construction of an Enemy" by Eleanor Stein "The Unknown Citizen" by W. H. Auden
Actively Selecting, Organizing, and Interpreting Sensations Thinking Passage: Experiences Shape Your Perceptions "Acquired Knowledge" by Anonymous Thinking Critically About Perceptions Thinking Passage: Plato's Allegory of the Cave: The Journey from Perception to Knowledge "On Plato's Cave" by Sonja Tanner Thinking Passages: Perception and Global Conflict "A World Not Neatly Divided" by Amartya Sen "The Origins of Occidentalism" by Ian Buruma "War of Ideas, Part 6" by Thomas L. Friedman Photo Essay
5. Believing and Knowing
Believing and Perceiving Believing and Knowing Thinking Passage: "Is the Earth Round or Flat?" by Alan Lightman Knowledge and Truth Thinking Critically About Your Beliefs Using Perspective-Taking to Achieve Knowledge Thinking Passage: "Why I Quit the Klan" by C. P. Ellis Beliefs Based on Indirect Experience Evaluating Online Information Final Thoughts
6. Language and Thought
The Evolution of Language The Symbolic Nature of Language Using Language Effectively Thinking Passage: From Blue Highways by William Least Heat-Moon Using Language to Clarify Thinking Thinking Passage: "An Account of Avianca Flight 52" Using Language in Social Contexts Using Language to Influence Final Thoughts Thinking Passage: Gender Differences in Language "Sex, Lies, and Conversation: Why Is It So Hard for Men and Women to Talk to Each Other?" by Deborah Tannen
7. Forming and Applying Concepts
What Are Concepts? The Structure of Concepts Forming Concepts Applying Concepts Thinking Passages: Femininity and Masculinity "Femininity" by Susan Brownmiller "The Return of Manly Men" by Patricia Leigh Brown Using Concepts to Classify Defining Concepts Thinking Passage: "Identify Yourself: Who's American?" by Gregory Rodriguez Relating Concepts with Mind Maps Final Thoughts Thinking Passage: "What Is Religion?" by Frederick J. Streng
8. Relating and Organizing
Chronological and Process Relationships Thinking Passage: "Back, but Not Home" by Maria Muniz Comparative and Analogical Relationships Causal Relationships Final Thoughts Thinking Passages: Environmental Issues "Worried? Us?" by Bill McKibben "The Conundrum of Consumption" by Alan Thein Durning Photo Essay
9. Reporting, Inferring, and Judging
Reporting Factual Information Thinking Passage: "The End of My Childhood" by N. Scott Momaday Inferring Judging The Thinker's Guide to Moral Decision-Making Final Thoughts Thinking Passage: "Evolution as Fact and Theory" by Stephen Jay Gould
10. Constructing Arguments
Recognizing Arguments Evaluating Arguments Understanding Deductive Arguments Constructing Extended Arguments Final Thoughts Thinking Passages: Human Cloning "U.S. Company Says It Cloned Human Embryo for Cells" by Maggie Fox "No Fear" by Richard T. Hull "Even If It Worked, Cloning Wouldn't Bring Her Back" by Thomas H. Murray
11. Reasoning Critically
Inductive Reasoning Empirical Generalization Fallacies of False Generalization Thinking Passage: Detecting Fallacies of False Generalization "She's Not Really Ill. . ." by Maureen Dowd Causal Reasoning Thinking Passage: Researching Cures and Prevention "'3 x 5' Progress Report" by World Health Organization/UNAIDS Causal Fallacies Fallacies of Relevance The Critical Thinker's Guide to Reasoning Thinking Passages: "Critical Thinking and Obedience to Authority" by John Sabini and Maury Silver "Pressure to Go Along with Abuse Is Strong, but Some Soldiers Find Strength to Refuse" by Anahad O'Connor
12. Thinking Critically, Living Creatively
Living a Life Philosophy Deciding on a Career Thinking Passages: Finding Meaning in Work "The Stunt Pilot" by Annie Dillard "Cut Time" by Carlo Rotella "Spellbound by the Eternal Riddle, Scientists Revel in Their Captivity" by Alan Lightman Thinking Critically About Personal Relationships The Thinker's Guide to Healthy Relationships Choosing "the Good Life"
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