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Understandable Statistics is a thorough, yet manageable text for one-semester introductory statistics courses. The text's approachable style is designed to help students overcome their apprehension about statistics, providing plenty of guidance and informal advice that show the links between statistics and the world. To reinforce this approach, the book integrates graphing technology as well as real-life data from such sources as journals, periodicals, newspapers and the Internet. This real-world emphasis asks students to utilize real data to draw conclusions and interpret results, working on problems drawn from the sciences, business, medicine, archaeology, and consumer economics.
Several features new to the Seventh Edition enhance student learning and instructor preparation. Also new to this edition is a robust set of technology resources, including a market-leading video series that provides valuable reinforcement for struggling students.
Note: Each chapter concludes with a Summary, Important Words and Symbols, Chapter Review Problems, Data Highlights: Group Projects, Linking Concepts: Writing Projects, and Using Technology.
1. Getting Started
Focus Problem: Where Have All the Fireflies Gone?
1.1 What Is Statistics?
1.2 Random Samples
1.3 Introduction to Experimental Design
2. Organizing Data
Focus Problem: Say it with Pictures
2.1 Bar Graphs, Circle Graphs, and Time Plots
2.2 Frequency Distributions and Histograms
2.3 Stem-and-Leaf Displays
3. Averages and Variation
Focus Problem: Why Bother!
3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mode, Medium, and Mean
3.2 Measures of Variation
3.3 Mean and Standard Deviation of Grouped Data
3.4 Percentiles and Box-and-Whisker Plots
4. Elementary Probability Theory
Focus Problem: How Often Do Lie Detectors Lie?
4.1 What is Probability?
4.2 Some Probability Rules--Compound Events
4.3 Trees and Counting Techniques
5. The Binomial Probability Distribution and Related Topics
Focus Problem: Personality Preference Types: Introvert or Extrovert?
5.1 Introduction to Random Variables and Probability Distributions
5.2 Binomial Probabilities
5.3 Additional Properties of the Binomial Distribution
5.4 The Geometric and Poissson Probability Distributions
6. Normal Distributions
Focus Problem: Large Auditorium Shows: How Many Will Attend?
6.1 Graphs of Normal Probability Distributions
6.2 Standard Units and Areas Under the Standard Normal Distribution
6.3 Areas Under Any Normal Curve
6.4 Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
7. Introduction to Sampling Distributions
Focus Problem: Impulse Buying
7.1 Sampling Distributions
7.2 The Central Limit Theorem
7.3 Sampling Distribution for Proportions
8. Estimation
Focus Problem: The Trouble with Wood Ducks
8.1 Estimating with Large Samples
8.2 Estimating with Small Samples
8.3 Estimating in the Binomial Distribution
8.4 Choosing the Sample Size
8.5 Estimating 1-2 and 1-2
9. Hypothesis Testing
Focus Problem: Business Opportunities and Start-Up Costs
9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
9.2 Test Involving the Mean (Large Samples)
9.3 The P Value in Hypothesis Testing
9.4 Tests Involving the Mean (Small Samples)
9.5 Tests Involving a Proportion
9.6 Tests Involving Paired Differences (Dependent Samples)
9.7 Testing Differences of Two Means or Two Proportions (Independent Samples)
10. Regression and Correlation
Focus Problem: Getting the Best Price
10.1 Introduction to paired Data and Scatter Diagrams
10.2 Linear Regression and Confidence Bounds for Prediction
10.3 The Linear Correlation Coefficient
10.4 Inferences Concerning Regression Parameters
10.5 Multiple Regression
11. Chi Square and F Distributions
Focus Problem: Stone Age Tools and Archaeology
Part I: Hypothesis Tests Using the Chi-Square Distribution
Overview of the Chi-Square Distribution
11.1 Chi Square: Tests of Independence
11.2 Chi Square: Goodness of Fit
11.3 Testing and Estimating a Single Variance or Standard Deviation
Part II: Hypothesis Test Using the F Distribution
11.4 Testing Two Variances
11.5 One-Way ANOVA: Comparing Several Sample Means
11.6 Introduction to Two-Way ANOVA
12. Nonparametric Statistics
Focus Problem: How Cold? Compared to What?
12.1 The Sign Test for Matched Pairs
12.2 The Rank-Sum Test
12.3 Spearman Rank Correlation
Appendix I. Additional Topics
Part I: Bayes
Part II: The Hypergeometric Probability Distribution
Part III: Alternate Standard Normal Distribution Table
Appendix II. Tables
Table 1: Random Numbers
Table 2: Binomial Coefficients Cn,r
Table 3:Binomial Probability Distribution Cn,rprqn-r
Table 4: Poisson Probability Distribution
Table 5: Areas of a Standard Normal Distribution
Table 6: Student
Table 7: The X2 Distribution
Table 8: The F Distribution
Table 9: Critical Values for Spearman Rank Correlation, rs
Answers and Key Steps to Odd-Numbered Problems
Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Problems
Index
Understandable Statistics is a thorough, yet manageable text for one-semester introductory statistics courses. The text's approachable style is designed to help students overcome their apprehension about statistics, providing plenty of guidance and informal advice that show the links between statistics and the world. To reinforce this approach, the book integrates graphing technology as well as real-life data from such sources as journals, periodicals, newspapers and the Internet. This real-world emphasis asks students to utilize real data to draw conclusions and interpret results, working on problems drawn from the sciences, business, medicine, archaeology, and consumer economics.
Several features new to the Seventh Edition enhance student learning and instructor preparation. Also new to this edition is a robust set of technology resources, including a market-leading video series that provides valuable reinforcement for struggling students.
Table of Contents
Note: Each chapter concludes with a Summary, Important Words and Symbols, Chapter Review Problems, Data Highlights: Group Projects, Linking Concepts: Writing Projects, and Using Technology.
1. Getting Started
Focus Problem: Where Have All the Fireflies Gone?
1.1 What Is Statistics?
1.2 Random Samples
1.3 Introduction to Experimental Design
2. Organizing Data
Focus Problem: Say it with Pictures
2.1 Bar Graphs, Circle Graphs, and Time Plots
2.2 Frequency Distributions and Histograms
2.3 Stem-and-Leaf Displays
3. Averages and Variation
Focus Problem: Why Bother!
3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mode, Medium, and Mean
3.2 Measures of Variation
3.3 Mean and Standard Deviation of Grouped Data
3.4 Percentiles and Box-and-Whisker Plots
4. Elementary Probability Theory
Focus Problem: How Often Do Lie Detectors Lie?
4.1 What is Probability?
4.2 Some Probability Rules--Compound Events
4.3 Trees and Counting Techniques
5. The Binomial Probability Distribution and Related Topics
Focus Problem: Personality Preference Types: Introvert or Extrovert?
5.1 Introduction to Random Variables and Probability Distributions
5.2 Binomial Probabilities
5.3 Additional Properties of the Binomial Distribution
5.4 The Geometric and Poissson Probability Distributions
6. Normal Distributions
Focus Problem: Large Auditorium Shows: How Many Will Attend?
6.1 Graphs of Normal Probability Distributions
6.2 Standard Units and Areas Under the Standard Normal Distribution
6.3 Areas Under Any Normal Curve
6.4 Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
7. Introduction to Sampling Distributions
Focus Problem: Impulse Buying
7.1 Sampling Distributions
7.2 The Central Limit Theorem
7.3 Sampling Distribution for Proportions
8. Estimation
Focus Problem: The Trouble with Wood Ducks
8.1 Estimating with Large Samples
8.2 Estimating with Small Samples
8.3 Estimating in the Binomial Distribution
8.4 Choosing the Sample Size
8.5 Estimating 1-2 and 1-2
9. Hypothesis Testing
Focus Problem: Business Opportunities and Start-Up Costs
9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
9.2 Test Involving the Mean (Large Samples)
9.3 The P Value in Hypothesis Testing
9.4 Tests Involving the Mean (Small Samples)
9.5 Tests Involving a Proportion
9.6 Tests Involving Paired Differences (Dependent Samples)
9.7 Testing Differences of Two Means or Two Proportions (Independent Samples)
10. Regression and Correlation
Focus Problem: Getting the Best Price
10.1 Introduction to paired Data and Scatter Diagrams
10.2 Linear Regression and Confidence Bounds for Prediction
10.3 The Linear Correlation Coefficient
10.4 Inferences Concerning Regression Parameters
10.5 Multiple Regression
11. Chi Square and F Distributions
Focus Problem: Stone Age Tools and Archaeology
Part I: Hypothesis Tests Using the Chi-Square Distribution
Overview of the Chi-Square Distribution
11.1 Chi Square: Tests of Independence
11.2 Chi Square: Goodness of Fit
11.3 Testing and Estimating a Single Variance or Standard Deviation
Part II: Hypothesis Test Using the F Distribution
11.4 Testing Two Variances
11.5 One-Way ANOVA: Comparing Several Sample Means
11.6 Introduction to Two-Way ANOVA
12. Nonparametric Statistics
Focus Problem: How Cold? Compared to What?
12.1 The Sign Test for Matched Pairs
12.2 The Rank-Sum Test
12.3 Spearman Rank Correlation
Appendix I. Additional Topics
Part I: Bayes
Part II: The Hypergeometric Probability Distribution
Part III: Alternate Standard Normal Distribution Table
Appendix II. Tables
Table 1: Random Numbers
Table 2: Binomial Coefficients Cn,r
Table 3:Binomial Probability Distribution Cn,rprqn-r
Table 4: Poisson Probability Distribution
Table 5: Areas of a Standard Normal Distribution
Table 6: Student
Table 7: The X2 Distribution
Table 8: The F Distribution
Table 9: Critical Values for Spearman Rank Correlation, rs
Answers and Key Steps to Odd-Numbered Problems
Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Problems
Index