Summary: Understandable Statistics is a thorough, yet manageable text for one-semester introductory statistics courses. The text's approachable style is designed to help students overcome their apprehension about statistics, providing plenty of guidance and informal advice that show the links between statistics and the world. To reinforce this approach, the book integrates graphing technology as well as real-life data from such sources as journals, periodicals, newspapers and...show more the Internet. This real-world emphasis asks students to utilize real data to draw conclusions and interpret results, working on problems drawn from the sciences, business, medicine, archaeology, and consumer economics. Several features new to the Seventh Edition enhance student learning and instructor preparation. Also new to this edition is a robust set of technology resources, including a market-leading video series that provides valuable reinforcement for struggling students.
New! Check Points at the beginning of each section list the concepts that will be covered in the section to prepare students for the material.
New! Tech Notes, found in select section examples, provide general tips to guide students in the appropriate use of the TI-83 Plus, Minitab, and Excel. Denoted by an icon, the Tech Notes also incorporate display screens from each of these technologies to help students work through a statistical problem and better understand the solution.
New! Chapter openers have been redesigned to include new pedagogical features: a brief Chapter Table of Contents and a set of Preview Questions with references to the appropriate section in the chapter. Also featuring compelling new photos, the chapter-opening material maintains the book's emphasis on real-world applications with quotes, commentary, and Focus Problems from the previous edition.
New! Labels added to Examples, Guided Exercises, End-of-Section Exercises, and Review Problems conveniently identify the focus or topic of the exercise.
New! Even and odd answers in text margins of the Instructor's Annotated Edition, located next to their respective exercises, offers instructors a time-saving convenience. For answers that contain art or tables too large to fit in the margin, a note directs instructors to the Appendices, "Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Problems" and "Answers and Key Steps to Odd-Numbered Problems." The latter section also appears in the student text.
Viewpoint boxes in most section exercise sets present a real-world situation and feature thought-provoking problems that help to humanize statistics. Many of the Viewpoints encourage further exploration by directing students to Internet sites that are good sources of data.
Data Highlights (Group Projects) at the end of each chapter help prepare students for the collaboration that will be required of them in the workplace. The projects prompt students to work in small groups, discuss a topic, analyze data, and collaborate to formulate their response.
Linking Concepts (Writing Projects) at the end of each chapter challengestudents to extend their thinking and examine statistical concepts from abroader perspective by expressing their thoughts in essay form.
Integration of the Internet as a source for data offers instructors a springboard for projects and encourages students to explore. To allow instructors and students flexibility, all exercises referencing the Internet contain the relevant data so that use of the Internet is optional.
Guided Exercises immediately follow selected examples to give students the opportunity to work with new concepts before more are presented. Completely worked out solutions are situated beside each exercise to offer immediate reinforcement.
Detailed Examples show students how to select and apply appropriate procedures to solve problems.
Using Technology sections include real-world data from a variety of disciplines in problems that can be solved using computer software or a graphing calculator. Screen displays from Minitab, the TI-83, Excel, and Computerstat are also included, along with helpful instructions.
Section Exercises, featuring updated real data problems, require students to use all the new concepts mastered in the preceding section. Key steps to solutions of odd-numbered problems are contained in the back of the text for the student's benefit.
Chapter Focus Problems help prepare students for the concepts and skills to be covered and comprehensive Chapter Review Problems at the end of each chapter reinforce the material. Many problems synthesize material and concepts from several sections, asking students to decide what technique to apply to a problem.
Note: Each chapter concludes with a Summary, Important Words and Symbols, Chapter Review Problems, Data Highlights: Group Projects, Linking Concepts: Writing Projects, and Using Technology.
1. Getting Started
Focus Problem: Where Have All the Fireflies Gone? 1.1 What Is Statistics? 1.2 Random Samples 1.3 Introduction to Experimental Design
2. Organizing Data
Focus Problem: Say it with Pictures 2.1 Bar Graphs, Circle Graphs, and Time Plots 2.2 Frequency Distributions and Histograms 2.3 Stem-and-Leaf Displays
3. Averages and Variation
Focus Problem: Why Bother! 3.1 Measures of Central Tendency: Mode, Medium, and Mean 3.2 Measures of Variation 3.3 Mean and Standard Deviation of Grouped Data 3.4 Percentiles and Box-and-Whisker Plots
4. Elementary Probability Theory
Focus Problem: How Often Do Lie Detectors Lie? 4.1 What is Probability? 4.2 Some Probability Rules--Compound Events 4.3 Trees and Counting Techniques
5. The Binomial Probability Distribution and Related Topics
Focus Problem: Personality Preference Types: Introvert or Extrovert? 5.1 Introduction to Random Variables and Probability Distributions 5.2 Binomial Probabilities 5.3 Additional Properties of the Binomial Distribution 5.4 The Geometric and Poissson Probability Distributions
6. Normal Distributions
Focus Problem: Large Auditorium Shows: How Many Will Attend? 6.1 Graphs of Normal Probability Distributions 6.2 Standard Units and Areas Under the Standard Normal Distribution 6.3 Areas Under Any Normal Curve 6.4 Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
7. Introduction to Sampling Distributions
Focus Problem: Impulse Buying 7.1 Sampling Distributions 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem 7.3 Sampling Distribution for Proportions
Focus Problem: The Trouble with Wood Ducks 8.1 Estimating with Large Samples 8.2 Estimating with Small Samples 8.3 Estimating in the Binomial Distribution 8.4 Choosing the Sample Size 8.5 Estimating 1-2 and 1-2
9. Hypothesis Testing
Focus Problem: Business Opportunities and Start-Up Costs 9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 9.2 Test Involving the Mean (Large Samples) 9.3 The P Value in Hypothesis Testing 9.4 Tests Involving the Mean (Small Samples) 9.5 Tests Involving a Proportion 9.6 Tests Involving Paired Differences (Dependent Samples) 9.7 Testing Differences of Two Means or Two Proportions (Independent Samples)
10. Regression and Correlation
Focus Problem: Getting the Best Price 10.1 Introduction to paired Data and Scatter Diagrams 10.2 Linear Regression and Confidence Bounds for Prediction 10.3 The Linear Correlation Coefficient 10.4 Inferences Concerning Regression Parameters 10.5 Multiple Regression
11. Chi Square and F Distributions
Focus Problem: Stone Age Tools and Archaeology Part I: Hypothesis Tests Using the Chi-Square Distribution Overview of the Chi-Square Distribution 11.1 Chi Square: Tests of Independence 11.2 Chi Square: Goodness of Fit 11.3 Testing and Estimating a Single Variance or Standard Deviation Part II: Hypothesis Test Using the F Distribution 11.4 Testing Two Variances 11.5 One-Way ANOVA: Comparing Several Sample Means 11.6 Introduction to Two-Way ANOVA
12. Nonparametric Statistics
Focus Problem: How Cold? Compared to What? 12.1 The Sign Test for Matched Pairs 12.2 The Rank-Sum Test 12.3 Spearman Rank Correlation
Appendix I. Additional Topics
Part I: Bayess Theorem Part II: The Hypergeometric Probability Distribution Part III: Alternate Standard Normal Distribution Table
Appendix II. Tables
Table 1: Random Numbers Table 2: Binomial Coefficients Cn,r Table 3:Binomial Probability Distribution Cn,rprqn-r Table 4: Poisson Probability Distribution Table 5: Areas of a Standard Normal Distribution Table 6: Students t Distribution Table 7: The X2 Distribution Table 8: The F Distribution Table 9: Critical Values for Spearman Rank Correlation, rs Answers and Key Steps to Odd-Numbered Problems Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Problems Index
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