1. Introduction to Empirical Research 2. Experimental vs. Nonexperimental Studies 3. Experimental vs. Causal-Comparative Studies 4. Types of Nonexperimental Research 5. Variables in Nonexperimental Studies 6. Variables in Experimental Studies 7. Research Hypotheses, Purposes, and Questions 8. Operational Definitions of Variables 9. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research: I 10. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research: II 11. Program Evaluation 12. Ethical Considerations in Research 13. The Role of Theory in Research
Part B Reviewing Literature
14. Reasons for Reviewing Literature 15. Locating Literature Electronically 16. Writing Literature Reviews
Part C Sampling
17. Biased and Unbiased Sampling 18. Simple Random and Systematic Sampling 19. Stratified Random Sampling 20. Other Methods of Sampling 21. Introduction to Sample Size 22. A Closer Look at Sample Size
Part D Measurement
23. Introduction to Validity 24. Judgmental Validity 25. Empirical Validity 26. Judgmental-Empirical Validity 27. Reliability and Its Relationship to Validity 28. Measures of Reliability 29. Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests 30. Measures of Optimum Performance 31. Measures of Typical Performance
Part E Experimental Design
32. True Experimental Designs 33. Threats to Internal Validity 34. Threats to External Validity 35. Pre-Experimental Designs 36. Quasi-Experimental Designs
Part F Understanding Statistics
37. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 38. Introduction to the Null Hypothesis 39. Scales of Measurement 40. Descriptions of Nominal Data 41. Introduction to the Chi Square Test 42. A Closer Look at the Chi Square Test 43. Shapes of Distributions 44. The Mean, Median, and Mode 45. The Mean and Standard Deviation 46. The Median and Interquartile Range 47. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient 48. The t Test 49. One-Way Analysis of Variance 50. Two-Way Analysis of Variance 51. Practical Significance of Results 52. Introduction to Effect Size
A. The Validity Structure of Qualitative Research B. Excerpt from a Literature Review C. Indices to Journal Articles D. Selected Sources of Statistical Information E. Other Methods of Determining Reliability F. A Closer Look at the Standard Deviation G. Introduction to Meta-Analysis
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