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World of Psychology (Cloth)

World of Psychology (Cloth) - 7th edition

ISBN13: 978-0205763733

Cover of World of Psychology (Cloth) 7TH 11 (ISBN 978-0205763733)
ISBN13: 978-0205763733
ISBN10: 0205763731
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 7TH 11
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Published: 2011
International: No

List price: $248.75

World of Psychology (Cloth) - 7TH 11 edition

ISBN13: 978-0205763733

Samuel E. Wood

ISBN13: 978-0205763733
ISBN10: 0205763731
Cover type: Hardback
Edition/Copyright: 7TH 11
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Published: 2011
International: No

The World of Psychology offers an accessible text that is designed to seamlessly combine basic learning principles with applications to address the needs of today's diverse student population. The 6th edition of Wood/Wood/Boyd reflects the authors' commitment to the importance of learning and applying core principles in psychology. Students and Instructors of The World of Psychology will benefit by engaging in learning core concepts and applying them to the world we know. Biology and Behavior, Sensation and Perception, States of Consciousness, Learning, Memory, Cognition and Language, Intelligence and Creativity, Child, Adolescent and Adult Development, Motivation and Emotion, Human Sexuality and Gender, Health and Stress, Personality Theories, Psychological Disorders, and Therapies. Introduction to Psychology.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Introduction to Psychology 2
An Introduction to The World of Psychology 5
Studying Psychology: Some Tricks of the Trade 6
Psychology: Science or Common Sense! 7
The Goals of Psychology 8
Exploring Psychology's Roots 9
Structuralism 10
Functionalism 10
The Changing Face of Psychology 11
Schools of Thought in Psychology 13
Behaviorism 13
Psychoanalysis 14
Humanistic Psychology 14
Cognitive Psychology 14
Thinking about Theories and Research 16
Evaluating Theories 16
Evaluating Research 17
Descriptive Research Methods 18
Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation 18
The Case Study 19
Survey Research 19
The Correlational Method 21
The Experimental Method 23
Experiments and Hypothesis Testing 23
Independent and Dependent Variables 24
Experimental and Control Groups 25
Sources of Bias in Experimental Research 25
Limitations of the Experimental Method 26
Participants in Psychological Research 28
Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research 28
Protecting Research Participants' Rights 29
The Use of Animals in Research 29
Current Trends in Psychology 31
Evolutionary Psychology 31
Biological (Physiological) Psychology 31
The Sociocultural Approach 32
Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism 33
Psychologists at Work 34
Specialties in Psychology 34
Majoring in Psychology 35
Biology and Behavior 40
The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters 43
The Structure of the Neuron 44
Communication between Neurons 44
Neurotransmitters: The Neuron's Messengers 46
The Variety of Neurotransmitters 48
The Human Nervous System 49
The Spinal Cord 50
The Hindbrain 51
The Midbrain 52
The Forebrain 53
The Peripheral Nervous System 54
Discovering the Brain's Mysteries 56
The EEC and the Microelectrode 56
The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging 57
The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques 57
A Closer Look at the Brain 58
Components of the Cerebrum 58
The Cerebral Hemispheres 59
The Frontal Lobes 63
The Parietal Lobes 66
The Occipital Lobes 67
The Temporal Lobes 67
The Brain across the Life Span 68
Gender Differences in the Adult Brain 69
The Endocrine System 70
Genes and Behavioral Genetics 72
The Mechanisms of Heredity 73
Behavioral Genetics 74
Sensation and Perception 80
The Process of Sensation 83
The Absolute and Difference Thresholds 84
Transduction and Adaptation 84
Vision 86
The Eye 86
Vision and the Brain 88
Color Vision 90
Theories of Color Vision 90
Color Blindness 91
Hearing 92
Sound 92
The Ear 93
Theories of Hearing 94
Hearing Loss 95
The Other Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Balance 96
Smell 96
Taste 99
Touch 100
Pain 101
Balance and Movement 103
Principles of Perception 104
Perceptual Organization 104
Depth Perception 106
Motion Perception 107
Puzzling Perceptions 109
Influences on Perception 111
Prior Knowledge 112
Attention 113
Social Perception 114
Unusual Perceptual Experiences 115
States of Consciousness 120
What Is Consciousness? 123
Circadian Rhythms 124
The Influence of Circadian Rhythms 124
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus 125
Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms 125
Circadian Timing and Neurological Disorders 127
Sleep 128
Why Do We Sleep? 128
Types of Sleep 128
Sleep Cycles 129
REM Sleep and Memory 130
Variations in Sleep 131
Sleep Deprivation 131
Dreams 133
Interpreting Dreams 134
Sleep Disorders 135
Meditation and Hypnosis 136
Meditation 137
Hypnosis 138
Culture and Altered States of Consciousness 140
Psychoactive Drugs 141
How Drugs Affect the Brain 141
Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Abuse 142
Drug Addiction 144
The Behavioral Effects of Psychoactive Drugs 146
Herbal Remedies and Supplements 151
Learning 156
Classical Conditioning: The Original View 159
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning 160
The Process of Classical Conditioning 161
Changing Conditioned Responses 162
John Watson and Emotional Conditioning 165
Classical Conditioning: The Contemporary View 166
The Cognitive Perspective 167
Biological Predispositions 167
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life 168
Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning 170
Operant Conditioning 170
Thorndike and the Law of Effect 171
The Process of Operant Conditioning 171
Reinforcement 173
Schedules of Reinforcement 174
Factors Influencing Operant Conditioning 177
Punishment 177
Escape and Avoidance Learning 180
Applications of Operant Conditioning 181
Cognitive Learning 183
Learning by Insight 183
Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps 184
Observational Learning 184
Learning from Media 187
Memory 194
The Structure of Human Memory 197
The Information-Processing Approach 197
Sensory Memory 198
Short-Term Memory 199
Long-Term Memory 201
The Nature of Remembering 203
Three Types of Memory Tasks 203
The Serial Position Effect 204
Context and Memory 205
Memory as Reconstruction 206
Memory in Everyday Life 208
Flashbulb and Photographic Memories 208
Memory and Culture 209
Eyewitness Testimony 210
The Repressed Memory Controversy 211
Biology and Memory 213
The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region 213
Neuronal Changes and Memory 214
Hormones and Memory 215
Forgetting 216
Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting 216
The Causes of Forgetting 217
Improving Memory 221
Cognition, Language, and Intelligence 228
Cognition 231
Reasoning 231
Imagery 232
Concepts 233
Decision Making 234
Problem Solving 237
Artificial Intelligence 239
Language 240
The Structure of Language 240
Language and Thinking 242
Learning a Second Language 242
Animal Communication 244
Intelligence 246
The Nature of Intelligence 246
Measuring Intelligence 249
Requirements of Good Tests 251
The Bell Curve 252
Giftedness 253
Mental Retardation 254
Explaining Differences in Cognitive Abilities 255
The Heritability of Intelligence 255
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable? 257
Race and IQ 259
Culture, IQ, and Achievement 260
Beyond Intelligence 262
Emotional Intelligence 262
Creativity 263
Savant Syndrome 265
Child Development 270
Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodology 273
Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychology 273
Approaches to Studying Developmental Change 274
Prenatal Development 276
Stages of Prenatal Development 276
Fetal Behavior 277
Negative Influences on Prenatal Development 278
Infancy 280
Reflexes and Motor Development 280
Sensory and Perceptual Development 282
Learning 282
Temperament 283
Attachment 284
The Father-Child Relationship 286
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 288
Schemes: The Foundation of Cognitive Development 288
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development 289
An Evaluation of Piaget's Contribution 294
Other Approaches to Cognitive Development 296
Vygotsky's Sociocultural View 296
The Information-Processing Approach 296
Language Development 298
The Sequence of Language Development 298
Theories of Language Development 299
Learning to Read 300
Social Development 301
The Parents' Role in the Socialization Process 301
Peer Relationships 303
Television as a Socializing Agent 304
Culture and Child Development 305
Adolescence and Adulthood 312
The Lifespan Perspective 315
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory 315
The Identity Crisis 316
Generativity 317
Adolescence 319
Puberty 319
Cognitive Development 321
Moral Development 322
Parental Relationships 325
The Peer Group 326
Emerging Adulthood 326
Early and Middle Adulthood 328
Physical Changes 328
Intellectual Abilities 329
The Impact of College Attendance 330
Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood 333
Later Adulthood 336
Physical Changes in Later Adulthood 336
Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood 338
Alzheimer's Disease-the Most Common Dementia 338
Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood 339
Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly 341
Death and Dying 342
Motivation and Emotion 348
Explaining Motivation 352
The Components of Motivation 352
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 352
Biological Approaches to Motivation 353
Two Primary Drives: Hunger and Thirst 355
Thirst 356
Internal and External Hunger Cues 356
Explaining Variations in Body Weight 357
Weight Loss Strategies 360
Eating Disorders 361
Social Motives 363
Achievement Motivation 364
Work Motivation 365
Understanding Emotion 366
Explaining the Components of Emotions 366
Theories of Emotion 367
Emotion and the Brain 369
Expressing Emotion 370
The Range of Emotion 370
The Development of Facial Expressions 371
The Universality of Facial Expressions 371
Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotion 372
Emotion as a Form of Communication 373
The Art and Science of Lie Detection 374
Experiencing Emotion 375
The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis 376
Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion 376
Emotion and Cognition 377
Love 378
Human Sexuality and Gender 384
Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles 387
Biological Sex 387
Psychological Gender 388
Early Theories of Gender Role Development 389
The Multi-Dimensional Approach to Gender Roles 391
Gender Schema Theory 393
Evolutionary Theory 393
Gender Differences 395
Thinking about Gender Differences 396
Cognitive Abilities 397
Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personality 400
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior 401
Gender and Cultural Differences 402
Sexual Desire and Arousal 404
Sexual Orientation 406
Determinants of Sexual Orientation 406
Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians 408
Gay and Lesbian Relationships 409
Sexual Dysfunctions 410
Sexual Desire Disorders 410
Sexual Arousal Disorders 410
Orgasmic and Sexual Pain Disorders 411
Sexually Transmitted Diseases 412
Bacterial STDs 413
Viral STDs 414
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 414
Health and Stress 422
Sources of Stress 425
Life Events: Big and Small 425
Daily Hassles and Uplifts 427
Conflicts and Controllability 428
Stress in the Workplace 429
Catastrophic Events 430
Racism and Stress 430
Socioeconomic Status and Stress 431
Responding to Stress 433
Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome 433
Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stress 434
Coping Strategies 434
Health and Illness 436
Two Approaches to Health and Illness 436
Coronary Heart Disease 436
Cancer 438
The Immune System and Stress 439
Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness 440
Gender and Health 442
Race and Health 442
Lifestyle and Health 444
Smoking and Health 445
Alcohol Abuse 446
Diet 447
Exercise 448
Alternative Medicine 448
Personality Theory and Assessment 454
Psychoanalytic Theories 457
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious 457
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego 458
The Psychosexual Stages of Development 460
Evaluating Freud's Contribution 462
The Neo-Freudians 463
Humanistic Theories 465
Two Humanistic Theories 465
Self-Esteem 466
Trait Theories 467
Early Trait Theories 467
The Five-Factor Model 469
Origins and Stability of the Five Factors 471
Culture and Personality Traits 471
Social-Cognitive Theories 473
The Situation-Trait Debate 473
Reciprocal Determinism 474
Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control 475
Personality Assessment 477
Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales 477
Personality Inventories 478
Projective Tests 480
Psychological Disorders 486
Defining Psychological Disorders 489
What Is Abnormal? 489
Classifying Psychological Disorders 491
Explaining Psychological Disorders 492
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders 493
Anxiety Disorders 494
Panic Attacks and Agoraphobia 495
Common Anxiety Disorders 496
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 498
Mood Disorders 499
Major Depressive Disorder 499
Culture, Gender, and Depression 500
Bipolar Disorder 500
Explaining Mood Disorders 502
Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age 502
Schizophrenia 504
Age, Gender, and Schizophrenia 504
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia 505
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia 505
Types of Schizophrenia 506
Explaining Schizophrenia 506
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders 510
Somatoform Disorders 510
Dissociative Disorders 510
Personality Disorders 512
Characteristics of Personality Disorders 513
Types of Personality Disorders 513
Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood 516
Pervasive Developmental Disorders 516
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 518
Therapies 524
Insight Therapies 527
Psychodynamic Therapies 527
Interpersonal Therapy 528
Humanistic Therapies 529
Gestalt Therapy 529
Relationship Therapies 530
Couple Therapy 530
Family Therapy 530
Group Therapy 531
Behavior Therapies 532
Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning 532
Behavior Therapies Based on Other Learning Theories 533
Cognitive Therapies 536
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy 536
Beck's Cognitive Therapy 537
Biological Therapies 538
Drug Therapy 538
Psychiatric Drugs for Children and Adolescents 542
Electroconvulsive Therapy 543
Psychosurgery 543
Evaluating the Therapies 544
Culturally Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy 547
Social Psychology 552
Social Perception 556
Impression Formation 556
Attribution 556
Attraction 557
Factors Influencing Attraction 557
Physical Attractiveness 558
Romantic Attraction and Mating 559
Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance 560
Conformity 560
Obedience 562
Compliance 562
Group Influence 563
Social Facilitation 564
Social Loafing 564
Social Roles 565
Attitudes and Attitude Change 566
Attitudes 566
Cognitive Dissonance 567
Persuasion 568
Prosocial Behavior 569
Reasons for Helping 570
The Bystander Effect 570
Aggression 572
Biological Factors in Aggression 572
Other Influences on Aggression 573
The Social Learning Theory of Aggression 574
Sexual Aggression 575
Prejudice and Discrimination 577
The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination 577
Is Prejudice Decreasing? 579
Unlearning Prejudice 580
Psychology in the Workplace 584
Personnel Psychology 587
Hiring Workers 587
Employee Training and Development 589
Evaluating Workers 590
Organizational Psychology 591
Approaches to Management 591
Leadership 592
Organizational Culture and Climate 595
Ethics in the Workplace 596
Human Factors Psychology 597
Workplace Design 597
The Quality of Work-Life Movement 598
Gender Issues at Work 600
Women's Work Patterns 600
Gender Differences in On-the-Job Coping Styles 601
Gender Discrimination 601
Sexual Harassment 603
Human Diversity in the Workplace 604
Race and Ethnicity in the Workplace 604
Cultural Diversity in the Workplace 605
Promoting Diversity 606
Statistical Methods A-1
References R-1
Glossary G-1
Name Index I-1
Subject Index I-14
Credits C-1

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