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Anthropology : Exploration of Human Diversity - With CD

Anthropology : Exploration of Human Diversity - With CD - 12th edition

Anthropology : Exploration of Human Diversity - With CD - 12th edition

ISBN13: 9780073315089

ISBN10: 0073315087

Anthropology : Exploration of Human Diversity - With CD by Conrad Kottak - ISBN 9780073315089
Edition: 12TH 08
Copyright: 2008
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company
International: No
Anthropology : Exploration of Human Diversity - With CD by Conrad Kottak - ISBN 9780073315089

ISBN13: 9780073315089

ISBN10: 0073315087

Edition: 12TH 08

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The new edition of Kottak's best selling text continues to offer a holistic introduction to anthropology that approaches the course from a four-field perspective. To emphasize anthropology's integrated and comparative nature, "Bringing It All Together" essays show how anthropology's sub-fields and dimensions combine to interpret and explain a common topic. Another distinctive feature, "Understanding Ourselves," illustrates the relevance of anthropological facts and theories to students' everyday lives.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

About the Author

Part One: The Dimensions of Anthropology

Chapter 1: What is Anthropology?

Human Adaptability
Adaptation, Variation, and Change
General Anthropology
Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology
The Subdisciplines of Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
Archaeological Anthropology
Interesting Issues: Even Anthropologists Get Culture Shock
Biological, or Physical Anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology
Beyond the Classroom: The Unity of Hand and Foot Bones for Problems in Biological Anthropology
Applied Anthropology
Anthropology and Other Academic Fields
Cultural Anthropology and Sociology
Anthropology and Psychology
Science, Explanation, and Hypothesis Testing

Chapter 2: Applying Anthropology

What is Applied Anthropology?
Academic and Applied Anthropology
Theory and Practice
Anthropology and Education
Urban Anthropology
Urban versus Rural
Medical Anthropology
Beyond the Classroom: New Life, Good Health
Anthropology and Business
Interesting Issues: Hot Asset in Corporate: Anthropology Degrees
Careers and Anthropology

Part Two: Physical Anthropology and Archaeology

Chapter 3: Ethics and Methods in Physical Anthropology and Archaeology

Multidisciplinary Approaches
Bone Biology
Molecular Anthropology
Interesting Issues: A Novel Method of Assessing Why People Cooperate
Survey and Excavation
Systematic Survey
Kinds of Archaeology
Dating the Past
Relative Dating
Absolute Dating: Radiometric Techniques
Absolute Dating: Dendrochronology
Molecular Dating

Chapter 4: Evolution and Genetics

Mendel's Experiments
Independent Assortment and Recombination
Biochemical, or Molecular Genetics
Cell Division
Crossing Over
Interesting Issues: Genetic Politics
Population Genetics and Mechanisms of Genetic Evolution
Natural Selection
Mutations and Variety
Random Genetic Drift
Gene Flow
The Modern Synthesis
Gradual or Rapid Change

Chapter 5: Human Variation and Adaptation

Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology
Races are Not Biologically Distinct
Interesting Issues: American Anthropological Association (AAA) Statement on "Race"
Explaining Skin Color
Beyond the Classroom: Skin Pigmentation in Papua New Guinea
Human Biological Adaptation
Genes and Disease
Facial Features
Size and Body Build
Lactose Tolerance

Chapter 6: The Primates

Our Place among Primates
Homologies and Analogies
Primate Tendencies
Beyond the Classroom: Providing Apes Refuge: A Cultural Study of the Great Ape Sanctuary Community
New World Monkeys
Old World Monkeys
Interesting Issues: Saving the Orangutan
Endangered Primates
Human-Primate Similarities
Predation and Hunting
Aggression and Resources
Human-Primate Differences
Sharing and Cooperation
Mating and Kinship
Behavioral Ecology and Fitness
Bringing it All Together: Saving the Forests

Chapter 7: Primate Evolution

Fossils and Chronology
Early Primates
Early Cenozoic Primates
Beyond the Classroom: A Behavioral Ecology Study of Two Lemur Species
Oligocene Anthropoids
Miocene Hominoids
Afropithecus and Kenyapithecus
A Missing Link?
Orrorin tugenensis
Beyond the Classroom: Maceration of a Canadian Lynx

Chapter 8: Early Hominids

Chronology of Hominid Evolution
The Earliest Hominids
Ardipithecus and KenyanThropus
The Varied Australopithecines
Australopiethecus afarensis
Gracile and Robust Australopithecines
The Australopithecines and Early Homo
H. rudolfensis and H. habilis
Oldowan Tools
A. garhi and Early Stone Tools
Beyond the Classroom: Hydrodynamic Sorting of Avian Skeletal Remains

Chapter 9: The Genus Homo

Early Homo
Interesting Issues: Headstrong Hominids
Out of Africa: Homo erectus
Paleolithic Tools
Adaptive Strategies of Homo erectus
The Evolution and Expansion of Homo erectus
Archaic Homo sapiens
The Neandertals
Cold-Apapted Neandertals
The Neandertals and Modern People
Homo sapiens sapiens (AMHs)
Out of Africa II
Multiregional Evolution
Advances in Technology
Glacial Retreat
Cave Art
Interesting Issues: Prehistoric Art Treasure Is Found in French Cave
The Mesolithic
Beyond the Classroom: Paleolithic Butchering at Verberie
Bringing it All Together: When Did Humans Start Acting Like Humans?

Chapter 10: The First Farmers

The Neolithic
The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East
Genetic Changes and Domestication
Food Production and the State
Other Old World Food Producers
The African Neolithic: Nabta Playa
The Neolithic in Europe and Asia
The First American Farmers
America's First Immigrants
The Foundations of Food Production
Early Farming in the Mexican Highlands
From Early Farming to the State
Explaining the Neolithic
Geography and the Spread of Food Production
Costs and Benefits
Beyond the Classroom: House Construction and Destruction Patterns of the Early Copper Age on the Great Hungarian Plain

Chapter 11: The First Cities and States

The Origin of the State
Hydraulic Systems
Long-Distance Trade Routes
Population, War, and Circumscription
Attributes of States
State Formation in the Middle East
Urban Life
The Elite Level
Social Ranking and Chiefdoms
How Ethnography Helps in Interpreting the Archaeological Record
Advanced Chiefdoms
The Rise of the State
Beyond the Classroom: The Akhenaten Temple Project
Other Early States
State Formation in Mesoamerica
Early Chiefdoms and Elites
States in the Valley of Mexico
Why States Collapse
The Mayan Decline
Interesting Issues: Pseudo-Archaeology
Bringing It All Together: The Peopling of the Pacific

Part Three: Cultural Diversity

Chapter 12: Methods in Cultural Anthropology

Ethnographic Techniques
Observation and Participant Observations
Conversation, Interviewing, and Interview Schedules
The Genealogical Method
Key Cultural Consultants
Life Histories
Local Beliefs and Perceptions, and the Ethnographer's
The Evolution of Ethnography
Problem-Oriented Ethnography
Longitudinal Research
Team Research
Culture, Space, and Scale
Survey Research
Beyond the Classroom: Stories from the Women Domestics of the Yucatan

Chapter 13: Culture

What is Culture?
Culture Is Learned
Culture Is Shared
Culture Is Symbolic
Interesting Issues: Touching, Affection, Love, and Sex
Culture and Nature
Culture Is All-Encompassing
Culture Is Integrated
Culture Can Be Adaptive and Maladaptive
Culture and the Individual: Agency and Practice
Levels of Culture
Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights
Universality, Generality, and Particularity
Particularity: Patterns of Culture
Beyond the Classroom: Folklore Reveals Ethos of Heating Plant Workers
Mechanisms of Cultural Change

Chapter 14: Ethnicity and Race

Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity
Status Shifting
Social Race
Beyond the Classroom: Perceptions of Race and Skin Color on an American College Campus
Hypodescent: Race in the United States
Race in the Census
Not Us: Race in Japan
Phenotype and Fluidity: Race in Brazil
Stratification and "Intelligence"
Ethnic Groups, Nations, and Nationalities
Nationalities and Imagined Communities
Peaceful Coexistence
The Plural Society
Interesting Issues: Ethnic Nationalism Runs Wild
Multiculturalism and Ethnic Identity
Roots of Ethnic Conflict
Prejudice and Discrimination
Chips in the Mosaic
Aftermaths of Oppression

Chapter 15: Language and Communication

What Is Language?
Animal Communication
Call Systems
Sign Language
The Origin of Language
Nonverbal Communication
The Structure of Language
Speech Sounds
Language, Thought, and Culture
Interesting Issues: Do Midwesterners Have Accents?
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Focal Vocabulary
Linguistic Diversity
Gender Speech Contrasts
Language and Status Position
Black English Vernacular (BEV), a.k.a. "Ebonics"
Historical Linguistics
Beyond the Classroom: Cybercommunication in Collegespace
Bringing It All Together: Canada: Unity and Diversity in Culture and Language

Chapter 16: Making a Living

Adaptive Strategies
Beyond the Classroom: Integrating Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Analytic Subsistence Data: A Case Study from Patagonia, South America
Correlates of Foraging
The Cultivation Continuum
Intensification: People and the Environment
Modes of Production
Production in Nonindustrial Societies
Means of Production
Alienation in Industrial Economies
Economizing and Maximization
Interesting Issues: Scarcity and the Betsileo
Alternative Ends
Distribution, Exchange
The Market Principle
Coexistence of Exchange Principles

Chapter 17: Political Systems

What Is "the Political?"
Types and Trends
Bands and Tribes
Foraging Bands
Tribal Cultivators
The Village Head
The "Big Man"
Pantribal Sodalities and Age Grades
Nomadic Politics
Beyond the Classroom: Perspectives on Group Membership
Political and Economic Systems in Chiefdoms
Social Status in Chiefdoms
Status Systems in Chiefdoms and States
Population Control
Fiscal Systems
Social Control: Politics, Shame, and Sorcery

Chapter 18: Families, Kinship, and Descent

Nuclear and Extended Families
Industrialism and Family Organization
Changes in North American Kinship
The Family among Foragers
Descent Groups
Interesting Issues: Social Security, Kinship Style
Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules
Ambilineal Descent
Family versus Descent
Kinship Calculation
Genealogical Kin Types and Kin Terms
Kinship Terminology
Lineal Terminology
Bifurcate Merging Terminology
Generational Terminology
Bifurcate Collateral Terminology
Chapter 19: Marriage
Incest and Exogamy
Explaining the Taboo
Instinctive Horror
Biological Degeneration
Attempt and Contempt
Marry Out or Die Out
Beyond the Classroom: Human Mate Preference in Matrimonial Advertisements from Gujarat, India
Royal Incest
Marital Rights and Same-Sex Marriage
Marriage as Group Alliance
Bridewealth and Dowry
Interesting Issues: Love and Marriage
Durable Alliances
Plural Marriages

Chapter 20: Gender

Sex and Gender
Recurrent Gender Patterns
Gender among Foragers
Gender among Horticulturalists
Reduced Gender Stratification--Matrilineal, Matrilocal Societies
Reduced Gender Stratification--Matrifocal Societies
Increased Gender Stratification--Patrilineal-Patrilocal Societies
Gender among Agriculturalists
Patriarchy and Violence
Gender and Industrialism
The Feminization of Poverty
Sexual Orientation
Interesting Issues: Hidden Women, Public Men--Public Women, Hidden Men
Bringing It All Together: The Basques

Chapter 21: Religion

What Is Religion?
Origins, Functions, and Expressions of Religion
Mana and Taboo
Magic and Religion
Anxiety, Control, Solace
Rites of Passage
Religion and Cultural Ecology
Sacred Cattle in India
Social Control
Beyond the Classroom: Ewe Traditional and Biomedical Healing Practices in Ghana's Volta Region
Kinds of Religion
Religion in States
Christian Values
World Religions
Religion and Change
Revitalization Movements
Antimodernism and Fundamentalism
A New Age
Secular Rituals

Chapter 22: The Arts

What Is Art?
Art and Religion
Locating Art
Art and Individuality
The Work of Art
Art, Society, and Culture
The Cultural Transmission of the Arts
Interesting Issues: I'll Get You, My Pretty, and Your Little R2
The Artistic Career
Beyond the Classroom: Capoeira: The Afro-Brazilian Art of Unity and Survival
Continuity and Change

Part Four: The Changing World

Chapter 23: The Modern World System

The Emergence of the World System
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Stratification
Asian Factory Women
Open and Closed Class System
Beyond the Classroom: The Residue of Apartheid in Southern Africa
The World System Today
Interesting Issues: The American Periphery
Industrial Degradation

Chapter 24: Colonialism and Development

British Colonialism
French Colonialism
Colonialism and Identity
Postcolonial Studies
The Second World
Postsocialist Transitions
Development Anthropology
The Greening of Java
Strategies for Innovation
Third World Models

Chapter 25: Cultural Exchange and Survival

Contact and Domination
Development and Environmentalism
Interesting Issues: Voices of the Rainforest
Religious Change
Resistance and Survival
Beyond the Classroom: Forging Activist Identities in the Kalaupapa Community of Leprosy Patients
Weapons of the Weak
Cultural Imperialism
Interesting Issues: Using Modern Technology to Preserve Linguistic and Cultural Diversity
Making and Remaking Culture
Popular Culture
Indigenizing Popular Culture
A World System of Images
A Transnational Culture of Consumption
People in Motion
The Continuance of Diversity

Bringing It All Together: The Biology and Culture of Overconsumption
Appendix 1: A History of Theories in Anthropology
Appendix 2: Ethics and Anthropology
Appendix 3: American Popular Culture
Name Index
Subject Index