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Stats & Probability for Behavioral/Social Sciences Textbooks

Edition: 6TH 00

Copyright: 2000

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Published: 2000

International: No

Copyright: 2000

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Published: 2000

International: No

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This readable revision is presented as simply as possible to ensure that readers will gain a solid understanding of statistical procedures. The goal of this book is to demystify statistics. Presented with rules of evidence and the logic behind those rules.

The book is divided into three major units: Descriptive Statistics, Inferential Statistics, and Advanced Topics in Inferential Statistics.

Includes definitions of key concepts in the glossary to prevent confusion over terminology.

Presents a brief biography of six people who have had the most impact on the field of statistics.

Offers new and easier methods for finding percentiles in Chapter 5.

For anyone interested in Social Statistics and Measurement.

Each chapter includes Summary, Key Terms and Names, and Problems.

Preface.

**I. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.**

**1. Introduction to Statistics. **

Stumbling Blocks to Statistics.

A Brief Look at the History of Statistics.

Benefits of a Course in Statistics.

General Field of Statistics.

**2. Graphs and Measures of Central Tendency. **

Graphs.

Measures of Central Tendency.

Appropriate Use of the Mean, the Median, and the Mode.

**3. Variability. **

Measures of Variability.

Graphs and Variability.

**4. The Normal Curve and Z Scores. **

The Normal Curve.

Z Scores.

Translating Raw Scores into Z Scores.

Z Score Translations in Practice.

**5. Z Scores Revisited : T Scores and Other Normal Curve Transformations. **

Other Applications of the Z Score.

The Percentile Table.

T Scores.

Normal Curve Equivalents.

Stanines.

Grade-Equivalent Scores : A Note of Caution.

The Importance of the Z Score.

**6. Probability. **

The Definition of Probability.

Probability and Percentage Areas of the Normal Curve.

Combining Probabilities for Independent Events.

A Reminder about Logic.

**II. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.**

**7. Statistics and Parameters. **

Generalizing from the Few to the Many.

Key Concepts of Inferential Statistics.

Techniques of Sampling.

Sampling Distributions.

Back to Z.

Some Words of Encouragement.

**8. Parameter Estimates and Hypothesis Testing. **

The Standard Deviation Revisited.

Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean.

Estimating the Population Mean : Interval Estimates and Hypothesis Testing.

The t Ratio.

The Type 1 Error.

Alpha Levels.

Effect Size.

Interval Estimates : No Hypothesis Test Needed.

**9. The Fundamentals of Research Methodology. **

Research Strategies.

Independent and Dependent Variables.

The Cause-and-Effect Trap.

Theory of Measurement.

Research : Experimental versus Post-Facto.

The Experimental Method : The Case of Cause and Effect.

Creating Equivalent Groups : The True Experiment.

Designing the True Experiment.

The Hawthorne Effect.

Sequencing Effects.

Counterbalancing.

Repeated Measures Designs with Separate Control Groups.

Requirements for the True Experiment.

Post-Facto Research.

Combination Research.

Research Errors.

Experimental Error : Failure to Use an Adequate Control Group.

Post-Facto Errors.

Meta-Analysis.

Methodology as a Basis for More Sophisticated Techniques.

**10. The Hypothesis of Difference. **

Sampling Distribution of Differences.

Estimated Standard Error of Difference.

Two-Sample t Test for Independent Samples.

Significance.

Two-Tail t Table.

Alpha and Confidence Levels.

The Minimum Difference.

Outliers.

One-Tail t Test.

Importance of Having at Least Two Samples.

Power.

Effect Size.

**11. The Hypothesis of Association : Correlation. **

Cause and Effect.

The Pearson r.

Interclass versus Intraclass.

Correlation Matrix.

The Spearmen rS.

An Important Difference between the Correlation Coefficient and the t Test.

**12. Analysis of Variance. **

Advantages of ANOVA.

Analyzing the Variance.

Applications of ANOVA.

The Factorial ANOVA.

Eta Squared and d.

Graphing the Interaction.

**13. Nominal Data and the Chi Square. **

Chi Square and Independent Samples.

Locating the Difference.

Chi Square and Percentages.

Chi Square and Z Scores.

Chi Square and Dependent Samples.

Requirements for Using the Chi Square.

**III. ADVANCED TOPICS IN INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.**

**14. Regression Analysis. **

Regression of Y on X.

Standard Error of Estimate.

Confidence Interval Equation.

Multiple r (Linear Regression with More Than Two Variables).

Path Analysis, the Multiple R, and Causation.

Partial Correlation.

**15. Repeated-Measures and Matched-Subjects Designs with Interval Data. **

Problem of Correlated or Dependent Samples.

Repeated Measures.

Paired t Ratio.

Within-Subjects F Ratio.

Within-Subjects Effect Size.

Testing Correlated Experimental Data.

**16. Nonparametrics Revisited : The Ordinal Case. **

Mann-Whitney U Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection.

Kruskal-Wallis H Test for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection.

Wilcoxon T Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection. Friedman ANOVA by Ranks for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Tests.

**17. Tests and Measurements. **

Norm and Criterion Referencing : Relative versus Absolute Performance Measures.

The Problem of Bias.

Test Reliability, Validity, and Measurement Theory.

Test Validity.

Item Analysis.

**18. Computers and Statistical Analysis. **

Computer Literacy.

Statistical Programs.

Logic Checkpoints.

Answers.

**19. Research Simulations : Choosing the Correct Statistical Test. **

Methodology : Research's Bottom Line.

Checklist Questions.

Critical Decision Points.

Research Simulations : From A to Z.

The Research Enterprise.

A Final Thought : The Burden of Proof.

Special Unit : The Binomial Case.

Appendix.

Glossary.

References.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Items (and Within-Chapter Exercises).

Index.

shop us with confidence

Summary

This readable revision is presented as simply as possible to ensure that readers will gain a solid understanding of statistical procedures. The goal of this book is to demystify statistics. Presented with rules of evidence and the logic behind those rules.

The book is divided into three major units: Descriptive Statistics, Inferential Statistics, and Advanced Topics in Inferential Statistics.

Includes definitions of key concepts in the glossary to prevent confusion over terminology.

Presents a brief biography of six people who have had the most impact on the field of statistics.

Offers new and easier methods for finding percentiles in Chapter 5.

For anyone interested in Social Statistics and Measurement.

Table of Contents

Each chapter includes Summary, Key Terms and Names, and Problems.

Preface.

**I. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.**

**1. Introduction to Statistics. **

Stumbling Blocks to Statistics.

A Brief Look at the History of Statistics.

Benefits of a Course in Statistics.

General Field of Statistics.

**2. Graphs and Measures of Central Tendency. **

Graphs.

Measures of Central Tendency.

Appropriate Use of the Mean, the Median, and the Mode.

**3. Variability. **

Measures of Variability.

Graphs and Variability.

**4. The Normal Curve and Z Scores. **

The Normal Curve.

Z Scores.

Translating Raw Scores into Z Scores.

Z Score Translations in Practice.

**5. Z Scores Revisited : T Scores and Other Normal Curve Transformations. **

Other Applications of the Z Score.

The Percentile Table.

T Scores.

Normal Curve Equivalents.

Stanines.

Grade-Equivalent Scores : A Note of Caution.

The Importance of the Z Score.

**6. Probability. **

The Definition of Probability.

Probability and Percentage Areas of the Normal Curve.

Combining Probabilities for Independent Events.

A Reminder about Logic.

**II. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.**

**7. Statistics and Parameters. **

Generalizing from the Few to the Many.

Key Concepts of Inferential Statistics.

Techniques of Sampling.

Sampling Distributions.

Back to Z.

Some Words of Encouragement.

**8. Parameter Estimates and Hypothesis Testing. **

The Standard Deviation Revisited.

Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean.

Estimating the Population Mean : Interval Estimates and Hypothesis Testing.

The t Ratio.

The Type 1 Error.

Alpha Levels.

Effect Size.

Interval Estimates : No Hypothesis Test Needed.

**9. The Fundamentals of Research Methodology. **

Research Strategies.

Independent and Dependent Variables.

The Cause-and-Effect Trap.

Theory of Measurement.

Research : Experimental versus Post-Facto.

The Experimental Method : The Case of Cause and Effect.

Creating Equivalent Groups : The True Experiment.

Designing the True Experiment.

The Hawthorne Effect.

Sequencing Effects.

Counterbalancing.

Repeated Measures Designs with Separate Control Groups.

Requirements for the True Experiment.

Post-Facto Research.

Combination Research.

Research Errors.

Experimental Error : Failure to Use an Adequate Control Group.

Post-Facto Errors.

Meta-Analysis.

Methodology as a Basis for More Sophisticated Techniques.

**10. The Hypothesis of Difference. **

Sampling Distribution of Differences.

Estimated Standard Error of Difference.

Two-Sample t Test for Independent Samples.

Significance.

Two-Tail t Table.

Alpha and Confidence Levels.

The Minimum Difference.

Outliers.

One-Tail t Test.

Importance of Having at Least Two Samples.

Power.

Effect Size.

**11. The Hypothesis of Association : Correlation. **

Cause and Effect.

The Pearson r.

Interclass versus Intraclass.

Correlation Matrix.

The Spearmen rS.

An Important Difference between the Correlation Coefficient and the t Test.

**12. Analysis of Variance. **

Advantages of ANOVA.

Analyzing the Variance.

Applications of ANOVA.

The Factorial ANOVA.

Eta Squared and d.

Graphing the Interaction.

**13. Nominal Data and the Chi Square. **

Chi Square and Independent Samples.

Locating the Difference.

Chi Square and Percentages.

Chi Square and Z Scores.

Chi Square and Dependent Samples.

Requirements for Using the Chi Square.

**III. ADVANCED TOPICS IN INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.**

**14. Regression Analysis. **

Regression of Y on X.

Standard Error of Estimate.

Confidence Interval Equation.

Multiple r (Linear Regression with More Than Two Variables).

Path Analysis, the Multiple R, and Causation.

Partial Correlation.

**15. Repeated-Measures and Matched-Subjects Designs with Interval Data. **

Problem of Correlated or Dependent Samples.

Repeated Measures.

Paired t Ratio.

Within-Subjects F Ratio.

Within-Subjects Effect Size.

Testing Correlated Experimental Data.

**16. Nonparametrics Revisited : The Ordinal Case. **

Mann-Whitney U Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection.

Kruskal-Wallis H Test for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection.

Wilcoxon T Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection. Friedman ANOVA by Ranks for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Tests.

**17. Tests and Measurements. **

Norm and Criterion Referencing : Relative versus Absolute Performance Measures.

The Problem of Bias.

Test Reliability, Validity, and Measurement Theory.

Test Validity.

Item Analysis.

**18. Computers and Statistical Analysis. **

Computer Literacy.

Statistical Programs.

Logic Checkpoints.

Answers.

**19. Research Simulations : Choosing the Correct Statistical Test. **

Methodology : Research's Bottom Line.

Checklist Questions.

Critical Decision Points.

Research Simulations : From A to Z.

The Research Enterprise.

A Final Thought : The Burden of Proof.

Special Unit : The Binomial Case.

Appendix.

Glossary.

References.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Items (and Within-Chapter Exercises).

Index.

Publisher Info

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Published: 2000

International: No

Published: 2000

International: No

This readable revision is presented as simply as possible to ensure that readers will gain a solid understanding of statistical procedures. The goal of this book is to demystify statistics. Presented with rules of evidence and the logic behind those rules.

The book is divided into three major units: Descriptive Statistics, Inferential Statistics, and Advanced Topics in Inferential Statistics.

Includes definitions of key concepts in the glossary to prevent confusion over terminology.

Presents a brief biography of six people who have had the most impact on the field of statistics.

Offers new and easier methods for finding percentiles in Chapter 5.

For anyone interested in Social Statistics and Measurement.

Each chapter includes Summary, Key Terms and Names, and Problems.

Preface.

**I. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.**

**1. Introduction to Statistics. **

Stumbling Blocks to Statistics.

A Brief Look at the History of Statistics.

Benefits of a Course in Statistics.

General Field of Statistics.

**2. Graphs and Measures of Central Tendency. **

Graphs.

Measures of Central Tendency.

Appropriate Use of the Mean, the Median, and the Mode.

**3. Variability. **

Measures of Variability.

Graphs and Variability.

**4. The Normal Curve and Z Scores. **

The Normal Curve.

Z Scores.

Translating Raw Scores into Z Scores.

Z Score Translations in Practice.

**5. Z Scores Revisited : T Scores and Other Normal Curve Transformations. **

Other Applications of the Z Score.

The Percentile Table.

T Scores.

Normal Curve Equivalents.

Stanines.

Grade-Equivalent Scores : A Note of Caution.

The Importance of the Z Score.

**6. Probability. **

The Definition of Probability.

Probability and Percentage Areas of the Normal Curve.

Combining Probabilities for Independent Events.

A Reminder about Logic.

**II. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.**

**7. Statistics and Parameters. **

Generalizing from the Few to the Many.

Key Concepts of Inferential Statistics.

Techniques of Sampling.

Sampling Distributions.

Back to Z.

Some Words of Encouragement.

**8. Parameter Estimates and Hypothesis Testing. **

The Standard Deviation Revisited.

Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean.

Estimating the Population Mean : Interval Estimates and Hypothesis Testing.

The t Ratio.

The Type 1 Error.

Alpha Levels.

Effect Size.

Interval Estimates : No Hypothesis Test Needed.

**9. The Fundamentals of Research Methodology. **

Research Strategies.

Independent and Dependent Variables.

The Cause-and-Effect Trap.

Theory of Measurement.

Research : Experimental versus Post-Facto.

The Experimental Method : The Case of Cause and Effect.

Creating Equivalent Groups : The True Experiment.

Designing the True Experiment.

The Hawthorne Effect.

Sequencing Effects.

Counterbalancing.

Repeated Measures Designs with Separate Control Groups.

Requirements for the True Experiment.

Post-Facto Research.

Combination Research.

Research Errors.

Experimental Error : Failure to Use an Adequate Control Group.

Post-Facto Errors.

Meta-Analysis.

Methodology as a Basis for More Sophisticated Techniques.

**10. The Hypothesis of Difference. **

Sampling Distribution of Differences.

Estimated Standard Error of Difference.

Two-Sample t Test for Independent Samples.

Significance.

Two-Tail t Table.

Alpha and Confidence Levels.

The Minimum Difference.

Outliers.

One-Tail t Test.

Importance of Having at Least Two Samples.

Power.

Effect Size.

**11. The Hypothesis of Association : Correlation. **

Cause and Effect.

The Pearson r.

Interclass versus Intraclass.

Correlation Matrix.

The Spearmen rS.

An Important Difference between the Correlation Coefficient and the t Test.

**12. Analysis of Variance. **

Advantages of ANOVA.

Analyzing the Variance.

Applications of ANOVA.

The Factorial ANOVA.

Eta Squared and d.

Graphing the Interaction.

**13. Nominal Data and the Chi Square. **

Chi Square and Independent Samples.

Locating the Difference.

Chi Square and Percentages.

Chi Square and Z Scores.

Chi Square and Dependent Samples.

Requirements for Using the Chi Square.

**III. ADVANCED TOPICS IN INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.**

**14. Regression Analysis. **

Regression of Y on X.

Standard Error of Estimate.

Confidence Interval Equation.

Multiple r (Linear Regression with More Than Two Variables).

Path Analysis, the Multiple R, and Causation.

Partial Correlation.

**15. Repeated-Measures and Matched-Subjects Designs with Interval Data. **

Problem of Correlated or Dependent Samples.

Repeated Measures.

Paired t Ratio.

Within-Subjects F Ratio.

Within-Subjects Effect Size.

Testing Correlated Experimental Data.

**16. Nonparametrics Revisited : The Ordinal Case. **

Mann-Whitney U Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection.

Kruskal-Wallis H Test for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection.

Wilcoxon T Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection. Friedman ANOVA by Ranks for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Tests.

**17. Tests and Measurements. **

Norm and Criterion Referencing : Relative versus Absolute Performance Measures.

The Problem of Bias.

Test Reliability, Validity, and Measurement Theory.

Test Validity.

Item Analysis.

**18. Computers and Statistical Analysis. **

Computer Literacy.

Statistical Programs.

Logic Checkpoints.

Answers.

**19. Research Simulations : Choosing the Correct Statistical Test. **

Methodology : Research's Bottom Line.

Checklist Questions.

Critical Decision Points.

Research Simulations : From A to Z.

The Research Enterprise.

A Final Thought : The Burden of Proof.

Special Unit : The Binomial Case.

Appendix.

Glossary.

References.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Items (and Within-Chapter Exercises).

Index.