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Biology : Scientific Process and Social Issues

Biology : Scientific Process and Social Issues - 01 edition

Biology : Scientific Process and Social Issues - 01 edition

ISBN13: 9781891786099

ISBN10: 1891786091

Biology : Scientific Process and Social Issues by Garland Allen and Jeffrey Baker - ISBN 9781891786099
Edition: 01
Copyright: 2001
Publisher: Fitzgerald Science Press
International: No
Biology : Scientific Process and Social Issues by Garland Allen and Jeffrey Baker - ISBN 9781891786099

ISBN13: 9781891786099

ISBN10: 1891786091

Edition: 01

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A brief and engaging tour of how life scientists form hypotheses, design experiments, analyze data, and draw conclusions in carrying out good science. Drawing on experiments from classic and modern biology, the authors compose a masterful picture of biology as a dynamic field ripe for a new generation of investigators.

Author Bio

Allen, Gar : Washington University-St.Louis

Gar Allen and Jeff Baker have taught basic biology and related life science courses with enthusiasm and passion for many years at Washington University and Wesleyan University. They have dedicated themselves to a teaching philosophy that the process of science (how we know what we know) is as essential as the facts (what we know) of science, especially in introductory level courses for college students. The authors' introductory series of biology texts, The Study of Biology, went through four editions with Addison-Wesley and was used at hundreds of colleges and universities around the world.

Baker, Jeff : Wesleyan University-Middletown, Connecticut

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Biology as a Process of Inquiry

The Growth of Biological Thought: The Nineteenth Century
The Twentieth Century Revolution in Biology
The Spirit of Inquiry: Some Unsolved Problems in Biology
Butterfly Migration
Hens' Teeth and Evolution
The Origin of Life
Further Reading
Suggested Websites

Chapter 2 The Nature and Logic of Science

Science as an Intellectual Discipline
Defining Science
Characteristics of Science
The Relationship Between the Science, Social Sciences, and Humanities
Science, Common Sense, and Intuition
The Logic of Science
Observation and Fact
From Fact to Conceptualization
Types of Conceptualizations
Observation, Fact, and Conceptualization: A Case Study
Creativity in Science
The Logic of Science: Induction and Deduction
Induction and Deduction
Logic, Predictions, and the Testing of Hypotheses
The Concept of Proof in Science
The "Dissection" of an Experiment
The Logic of Science: Hypotheses as Explanations
Teleological vs Causal Hypotheses
Types of Causal Explanations
Cause and Effect
Bias in Science
Conscious Bias
Unconscious Bias
The Concept of Paradigms
Darwin and the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
A Paradigm Shift in Molecular Biology: From the "Central Dogma" to Reverse Transcription
Characteristics of Paradigms
Modern Science, Materialism and Idealism
Mechanism and Vitalism
Conclusion: The Strengths and Limitations of Science
Exercises for Critical Thinking
Further Reading
Suggested Websites

Chapter 3 The Nature and Logic of Science: Testing Hypotheses

Testing Hypotheses: Some General Principles
Testing Hypotheses by Observation
Testing Hypotheses by Experiments
The Importance of Uniformity and Sample Size
A Case Study in Hypothesis Formulation and Testing: How Is Cholera Transmitted?
Disease: The Early Years
Snow's Observations
An Altemative Hypothesis
The Case of the Broad Street Pump
Objections to Snow's Water-Borne Hypothesis
The Critical Test
A Wider Appllicability and the Role of Chance
The Mechanism of Cholera Action: A Modern Perspective
A Modern Epidemic: The AIDS Crisis, 1981-?
Background: Origin of the AIDS Crisis
The Nature of HIV Infection
Treatment and/or Cure for AIDS
Exercises for Critical Thinking
Further Reading
Suggested Websites

Chapter 4 Doing Biology: Three Case Studies

Formulating and Testing Hypotheses in the Laboratory: The Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor
Research in the Field: Homing in Salmon
The Organism
Two Possible Hypotheses
Tabulating the Results
Additional Questions
Testing the Pheromone Hypothesis Further
Dissecting the Experiments
Statistical Significance
Research in Historical Biology: Mass Extinction and the End of the Dinosaurs-The Nemesis Affair
Testing the Impact Hypothesis
Extinction and the Paleontological Record
Periodic Mass Extinctions
The Nemesis Hypothesis
Exercises for Critical Thinking
Further Reading
Suggested Websites

Chapter 5 The Social Context of Science: The Interaction of Science and Society

Science and Technology: The Public Confusion
The Social Construction of Science
The Origin of The Origin of Species: Darwin and the Political Economists
Homeostasis: Walter Bradford Cannon and the New Deal
The Social Responsibility of Science
Genetics and Eugenics in the Early Twentieth Century
Herbicides in Southeast Asia
Ethical Concerns in Science Today
Ethical and Social Issues in the Use of Human Subjects for Research
The Tuskegee Study
Science and Pseudoscience
"Scientific" Creationism
Some Historical Background
Creationism: What Is It?
"Scientific" Creationism vs Evolution
Creationism as a Science
Science and Religion: An Underlying Difference
Exercises for Critical Thinking
Further Reading
Suggested Websites

Appendix 1 The Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Collecting Data and the Problem of Sampling Error
Seeking Relationshops: Collecting and Organizing Data
Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Measurement and Precision in Data Gathering
Variations in Measurement by Different Observers
Seeking Relationships: The Presentation of Data
Displaying Data
Scales and Scalar Transformation
Interpolation and Extrapolation
The Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Rate and Change of Rate
Analysis of Distributions: Central Tendency and Dispersion
Levels of Significance
Further Reading

Appendix 2 Exercises for Critical Thinking: Possible Answers

About the Authors