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Criminal Law: Cases and Materials

Criminal Law: Cases and Materials - 6th edition

Criminal Law: Cases and Materials - 6th edition

ISBN13: 9780314279828

ISBN10: 0314279822

Criminal Law: Cases and Materials by Joshua Dressler and Stephen P. Garvey - ISBN 9780314279828
Cover type: Hardback
Edition: 6TH 12
Copyright: 2012
Publisher: West Publishing Co. (Law Books)
International: No
Criminal Law: Cases and Materials by Joshua Dressler and Stephen P. Garvey - ISBN 9780314279828

ISBN13: 9780314279828

ISBN10: 0314279822

Cover type: Hardback
Edition: 6TH 12

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This popular casebook, through the selection of classic and modern cases, provides an excellent tool for teaching students the common law foundations of the criminal law and modern statutory reform, including the Model Penal Code. Along the way, the casebook considers modern controversies (e.g., ''shaming'' punishment, rape law, self-defense by battered women, euthanasia, the role of culture in determining culpability), and creatively uses literature (e.g., examining insanity through Edgar Allen Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart) and even ''brain teasers'' to confront (as the Preface states) ''the big questions . . . that philosophers, theologians, scientists, and poets, as well as lawyers, have grappled with for centuries.'' Professor Stephen Garvey (Cornell) joins the casebook beginning with this new edition. The Sixth Edition, as in the past, includes some new cases, as well as updates in the notes that bring current issues of criminal law to the fore. New Power Points have been added to the casebook companion website.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition     v
Preface to First Edition     vii
Acknowledgments     xiii
Table of Cases     xxxix
Table of Model Penal Code Sections     xlix
Table of Authorities     li
Introduction: Setting the Stage     1
Nature, Sources, and Limits of the Criminal Law     1
Henry M. Hart, Jr.-The Aims of the Criminal Law     1
Notes and Questions     3
Criminal Law in a Procedural Context: Pre-Trial     6
Criminal Law in a Procedural Context: Trial by Jury     7
Proof of Guilt at Trial     9
''Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt''     9
Notes and Questions     10
Enforcing the Presumption of Innocence     13
Owens V. State     13
Notes and Questions     16
Jury Nullification     18
Introductory Comment     18
State V. Ragland     19
Notes and Questions     22
Principles of Punishment     29
Introduction: Initial Thoughts and Hard Statistics     29
Theories of Punishment     30
In General     30
Kent Greenawalt-Punishment     30
Notes andQuestions     31
Utilitarian Justifications     32
Jeremy Bentham-An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation     32
Kent Greenawalt-Punishment     34
Notes and Questions     35
Retributive Justifications     38
Michael S. Moore-The Moral Worth of Retribution     38
Notes and Questions     39
Immanuel Kant-The Philosophy of Law     39
Notes and Questions     40
2 James Fitzjames Stephen-A History of the Criminal Law of England     40
Notes and Questions     41
Theories of Punishment-Continued
Herbert Morris-Persons and Punishment     42
Notes and Questions     43
Jeffrie G. Murphy & Jean Hampton-Forgiveness and Mercy     45
Notes and Questions     46
The Penal Theories in Action     48
Who Should Be Punished?     48
The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens     48
Notes and Questions     49
How Much (and What) Punishment Should Be Imposed?     50
People v. Superior Court (Du)     50
People v. Du     53
Notes and Questions     56
United States v. Gementera     59
Notes and Questions      65
Proportionality of Punishment     66
General Principles     66
Immanuel Kant-The Philosophy of Law     66
Jeremy Bentham-An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation     67
Notes and Questions     68
Constitutional Principles     69
Coker V. Georgia     69
Notes and Questions     74
Ewing v. California     76
Notes and Questions     87
Modern Role of Criminal Statutes     88
Principle of Legality     88
The Requirement of Previously Defined Conduct     88
Commonwealth v. Mochan     88
Notes and Questions     91
Keeler v. Superior Court     91
Notes and Questions     99
The Values of Statutory Clarity     101
In re Banks     101
Notes and Questions     105
City of Chicago v. Morales     109
Notes and Questions     115
Statutory Interpretation     116
United States v. Foster     116
Notes and Questions     124
Actus Reus     126
Introductory Comment: Defining ''Actus Reus''     126
Voluntary Act      127
Martin v. State     127
Notes and Questions     127
State v. Utter     129
Notes and Questions     132
Omissions (''Negative Acts'')     134
General Principles     134
People V. Beardsley     134
Notes and Questions     137
Distinguishing Acts From Omissions     140
Omissions (''Negative Acts'')-Continued
Barber v. Superior Court     140
Notes and Questions     144
Social Harm     145
Notes and Questions     146
Mens Rea     147
Nature of ''Mens Rea''     147
United States v. Cordoba-Hincapie     147
Notes and Questions     148
Regina v. Cunningham     149
Notes and Questions     150
General Issues in Proving Culpability     151
''Intent''     151
People V. Conley     151
Notes and Questions     153
The Model Penal Code Approach     157
Introductory Comment     157
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code And Commentaries, Comment To [section] 2.02     158
Notes and Questions     161
''Knowledge'' of Attendant Circumstances (The ''Wilful Blindness'' Problem)     161
State v. Nations     161
Notes and Questions     164
Problems in Statutory Interpretation     167
United States v. Morris     167
Notes and Questions     171
Strict Liability Offenses     172
United States v. Cordoba-Hincapie     172
Notes and Questions     173
Staples v. United States     174
Notes and Questions     180
Garnett v. State     184
Notes and Questions     190
Mistake and Mens Rea     191
Mistake of Fact     191
People v. Navarro     191
Notes and Questions     193
Mistake (or Ignorance) of Law     196
People v. Marrero     196
Notes and Questions     202
Cheek v. United States     206
Notes and Questions     210
Causation     211
Actual Cause (Cause-in-Fact)     211
Velazquez v. State     211
Oxendine v. State     212
Notes and Questions     216
Proximate Cause (''Legal'' Cause)     216
Introductory Comment     216
Kibbe v. Henderson      217
Notes and Questions     220
Proximate Cause (''Legal'' Cause)-Continued
Velazquez v. State     224
Notes and Questions     226
Concurrence of the Elements     227
State v. Rose     227
Notes and Questions     229
Criminal Homicide     230
Overview     230
Homicide Statistics     230
Common Law Origins and Statutory Reform     230
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 210.2     230
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 210.3     232
Variations on the Theme: Some Homicide Statutes     233
California Penal Code     233
Illinois Criminal Code     235
Michigan Penal Code     237
New York Penal Law     238
Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes     240
Notes and Questions     242
The Protected Interest: ''Human Being''     242
People v. Eulo     242
Notes and Questions     247
Intentional Killings     248
Degrees of Murder: The Deliberation-Premeditation Formula     248
State V. Guthrie     248
Notes and Questions      251
Midgett v. State     253
Notes and Questions     255
State v. Forrest     255
Notes and Questions     258
Manslaughter: ''Heat of Passion'' Killings     259
Common Law Principles     259
Girouard v. State     259
Notes and Comments     263
Joshua Dressler-Rethinking Heat of Passion: A Defense in Search of a Rationale     266
Joshua Dressler-Why Keep the Provocation Defense?: Some Reflections on a Difficult Subject     268
Notes and Questions     269
The Objective Standard: Who Is the ''Reasonable Man''?     270
Introductory Comment     270
Attorney General for Jersey v. Holley     271
Notes and Questions     278
Model Penal Code and Beyond     281
People v. Casassa     281
Notes and Questions     285
Murder Versus Manslaughter: A Literary Problem     288
Willa Cather-O Pioneers     288
Notes and Questions     291
Unintentional Killings: Unjustified Risk-Taking     291
Introduction: A Road Map     291
Unintentional Killings: Unjustified Risk-Taking-Continued
Berry v. Superior Court     292
People v. Nieto Benitez      294
Notes and Questions     295
State v. Hernandez     297
Notes and Questions     301
State v. Williams     301
Notes and Questions     305
Unintentional Killings: Unlawful Conduct     309
The Felony-Murder Rule     309
The Doctrine in Its Unlimited Form     309
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 210.2     310
People v. Fuller     311
Notes and Questions     312
The Policy Debate     312
Nelson E. Roth & Scott E. Sundby-The Felony-Murder Rule: A Doctrine at Constitutional Crossroads     312
David Crump & Susan Waite Crump-In Defense of the Felony Murder Doctrine     316
Notes and Questions     320
Limitations on the Rule     320
Overview     320
James J. Tomkovicz-The Endurance of the Felony-Murder Rule: A Study of the Forces That Shape Our Criminal Law     320
The ''Inherently Dangerous Felony'' Limitation     321
People v. Howard     321
Notes and Questions     326
The ''Independent Felony'' (or Merger) Limitation     328
People v. Robertson     328
Notes and Questions      334
Killings ''in the Perpetration'' or ''in Furtherance'' of a Felony     334
State v. Sophophone     334
Notes and Questions     337
Unlawful-Act Manslaughter (The ''Misdemeanor Manslaughter'' Rule)     339
A Brain Teaser to End All Brain Teasers     340
Notes and Questions     341
Capital Murder     341
The Constitutional and Policy Debate     341
Introductory Comment     341
Gregg v. Georgia     342
Notes and Questions     349
The Quest for Reliable Procedures     358
Introductory Comment     358
The Lingering Question of Racial Discrimination     359
McCleskey v. Kemp     359
Notes and Questions     364
Victim Impact Evidence     365
Payne v. Tennessee     365
Notes and Questions     372
Substantive Limitations on the Death Penalty     373
Capital Murder-Continued
Tison u. Arizona     373
Notes and Questions     379
Rape     381
Overview     381
Rape (Sexual Assault) Statistics     381
U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Bureau Of Justice Statistics-Sex Offenses And Offenders     381
Notes and Questions     383
Social Context     385
Susan Estrich-Rape     385
Notes and Questions     386
Joshua Dressler-Where We Have Been, And Where We Might Be Going: Some Cautionary Reflections On Rape Law Reform     388
Notes and Questions     389
Variations on the Theme: Some Sexual Offense Statutes     391
Alabama Criminal Code     391
California Penal Code     392
Indiana Criminal Code     394
New Jersey Code of Criminal Justice     395
Title 18, Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes     397
Forcible Rape     399
Force and Nonconsent     399
State v. Alston     399
Notes and Questions     403
How Much Force?: The Resistance Requirement     406
Rusk v. State     406
State v. Rusk     411
Notes and Questions     412
''No'' (or the Absence of ''Yes'') as ''Force''?     419
Susan Estrich-Rape     419
Susan Ager-The Incident     420
Notes and Questions     422
Commonwealth v. Berkowitz     423
Notes and Questions     431
State of New Jersey in the Interest of M.T.S.      432
Notes and Questions     441
One Final Wrinkle: Withdrawn Consent     444
People v. John Z     444
Notes and Questions     450
Mens Rea     451
Commonwealth v. Sherry     451
Notes and Questions     453
Rape by Fraud or Non-physical Threats     458
Boro v. Superior Court     458
Notes and Questions     462
Rape Shield Laws     464
State V. Herndon     464
People V. Wilhelm     465
Notes and Questions     468
Statutory Rape     469
Garnett v. State     469
Notes and Questions     469
General Defenses to Crimes     474
Categories of Defenses     474
Paul H. Robinson-Criminal Law Defenses: A Systematic Analysis     474
Joshua Dressler-Justifications And Excuses: A Brief Review of the Concepts and the Literature     477
Notes and Questions     480
Burden of Proof     480
Patterson v. New York     480
Notes and Questions     489
Principles of Justification     491
Structure and Underlying Theories of Justification Defenses     491
1 Paul H. Robinson-Criminal Law Defenses     491
Joshua Dressler-Understanding Criminal Law     492
Self-Defense     494
General Principles     494
United States v. Peterson     494
Notes and Questions     499
''Reasonable Belief Requirement     504
In General     504
People v. Goetz     504
Notes and Questions     510
The ''Reasonable Person'': Objective, Subjective, or a Mixed Standard?     518
State v. Wanrow     518
Notes and Questions     521
Battered Women, Battered Woman Syndrome and Beyond     525
State v. Norman     525
State v. Norman     530
Notes and Questions     533
Stephen J. Morse-The ''New Syndrome Excuse Syndrome''     539
Notes and Questions     541
Defense of Others     543
People v. Kurr     543
Notes and Questions     546
Defense of Property/Habitation and Law Enforcement Defenses     547
People v. Ceballos     547
Notes and Questions     551
Tennessee v. Garner     553
Notes and Questions     560
Necessity (''Choice of Evils'')      562
General Principles     562
Nelson v. State     562
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 3.02     565
Notes and Questions     566
Civil Disobedience     568
United States v. Schoon     568
Notes and Questions     573
Defense to Murder?     574
Principles of Justification-Continued
The Queen v. Dudley And Stephens     574
Notes and Questions     577
Principles of Excuse     581
Why Do We Excuse Wrongdoers?     581
Sanford H. Kadish-Excusing Crime     581
Joshua Dressler-Understanding Criminal Law     583
Notes and Questions     585
Duress     585
General Principles     585
United States v. Contento-Pachon     585
Notes and Questions     588
Necessity Versus Duress     594
People v. Unger     594
Notes and Questions     597
Defense to Murder?     599
People v. Anderson     599
Notes and Questions     605
Intoxication     605
Commonwealth v. Graves     606
Notes and Questions      610
Insanity     616
Procedural Context     616
Competency to Stand Trial     616
Pre-Trial Assertion of the Insanity Plea     618
Burden of Proof at Trial     619
Post-Trial Disposition of Insanity Acquittees     619
Sexual Predator Laws: A New Strategy for Civil Commitment     621
Why Do We Excuse the Insane?: Some Initial Thoughts     622
United States v. Freeman     622
Notes and Questions     622
Struggling for a Definition: The Tests of Insanity     624
State v. Johnson     624
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries Comment to [section] 4.01     628
Notes and Questions     629
M'Naghten and the Model Penal Code in Greater Detail     637
Knowing/Appreciating the ''Wrongfulness'' of One's Actions     637
State v. Wilson     637
Notes and Questions     645
Convincing the Jury: The Role of Experts     648
State v. Green     648
Notes and Questions     655
Should the Defense Be Abolished?     657
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries Comment to [section] 4.01     657
Notes and Questions      658
One Final Problem     660
Edgar Allan Poe-The Tell-Tale Heart     660
Notes and Questions     663
Principles of Excuse-Continued
Diminished Capacity     664
Stephen J. Morse-Undiminished Confusion in Diminished Capacity     664
Notes and Questions     665
Clark v. Arizona     669
Notes and Questions     681
Infancy     682
In re Devon T.     683
Notes and Questions     689
New Defenses?     690
Euthanasia     690
Latimer v. The Queen     691
Notes and Questions     696
Yale Kamisar-Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case     703
Notes and Questions     707
Addiction/Alcoholism Constitutional Defense     708
Robinson v. California     708
Notes and Questions     712
Powell v. Texas     713
Notes and Questions     723
''Rotten Social Background'' (RSB) Defense     725
Richard Delgado-''Rotten Social Background'': Should the Criminal Law Recognize a Defense of Severe Environmental Deprivation?     726
Notes and Questions     728
''Cultural Defense''      728
State v. Kargar     728
Notes and Questions     732
The Cultural Defense in the Criminal Law     733
Notes and Questions     737
Inchoate Offenses     739
Overview     739
American Law Institute-Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to Article 5     739
Notes and Questions     740
Attempt     742
General Principles     742
Ira P. Robbins-Double Inchoate Crimes     742
Notes and Questions     742
Andrew Ashworth-Criminal Attempts and the Role of Resulting Harm Under the Code, and in the Common Law     744
Notes and Questions     746
Grading Criminal Attempts     747
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 5.05     747
Notes and Questions     747
Mens Rea     748
People v. Gentry     748
Notes and Questions     750
Bruce v. State     752
Notes and Questions     753
Actus Reus     755
General Principles     755
United States v. Mandujano     755
Notes and Questions     757
An Initial Effort at Drawing the Preparation-Perpetration Line     758
Notes and Questions     759
Distinguishing Preparation From Perpetration: The Tests at Work     759
Commonwealth v. Peaslee     759
Notes and Questions     761
People v. Rizzo     763
Notes and Questions     764
People v. Miller     765
Notes and Questions     766
State v. Reeves     768
Notes and Questions     773
Punishing Pre-Attempt Conduct     775
United States v. Alkhabaz     776
Notes and Questions     780
Special Defenses     783
Impossibility     783
People v. Thousand     783
Notes and Questions     790
Abandonment     797
Commonwealth v. McCloskey     797
Notes and Questions     800
Assault     801
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 211.1     801
Notes and Questions     802
Solicitation     804
State v. Mann     804
Notes and Questions     804
State v. Cotton     805
Notes and Questions      807
Conspiracy     809
General Principles     809
People v. Carter     809
Notes and Questions     810
Pinkerton v. United States     813
Notes and Questions     814
Mens Rea     818
People v. Swain     818
Notes and Questions     821
People v. Lauria     822
Notes and Questions     826
Actus Reus     828
Abraham S. Goldstein-Conspiracy to Defraud the United States     828
Notes and Questions     829
Commonwealth v. Azim     829
Notes and Questions     831
Commonwealth v. Cook     831
Notes and Questions     835
Conspiracy: Bilateral or Unilateral?     836
People v. Foster     836
Notes and Questions     839
Scope of an Agreement: Party and Object Dimensions     841
American Law Institute, Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 5.03     841
Kilgore v. State     842
Notes and Questions     846
Braverman v. United States     848
Notes and Questions     849
Defenses     850
Iannelli v. United States     850
Notes and Questions     854
Gebardi v. United States     855
Notes and Questions     857
People v. Sconce     857
Notes and Questions     859
Liability for the Conduct of Another     860
Accomplice Liability     860
General Principles     860
Common Law Terminology and Its Significance     860
State v. Ward     860
Notes and Questions     861
Theoretical Foundation: Derivative Liability     862
''Elements'' of Accomplice Liability: In General     863
State v. Hoselton     863
Notes and Questions     865
Mens Rea     867
Intent: ''Purpose'' or ''Knowledge''?     867
People v. Lauria     867
Notes and Questions     867
When Is ''Intent'' Not Required?     870
Offenses Not Requiring Intent     870
Riley v. State     870
Notes and Questions     874
Natural-and-Probable-Consequences Doctrine     875
State v. Linscott     875
Notes and Questions     878
Attendant Circumstances     879
Actus Reus      880
State v. Vaillancourt     880
Notes and Questions     882
Wilcox v. Jeffery     883
Notes and Questions     885
State v. Helmenstein     885
Notes and Questions     887
People v. Genoa     890
Notes and Questions     891
Distinguishing Direct From Accomplice Liability     892
Bailey v. Commonwealth     892
Notes and Questions     895
Relationship of the Liability of the Accomplice to the Principal     896
If the Principal Is Acquitted     896
United States v. Lopez     896
Accomplice Liability-Continued
Notes and Questions     898
If the Principal Is Convicted     899
People v. McCoy     899
Notes and Questions     901
Limits to Accomplice Liability     901
In re Meagan R.     901
Notes and Questions     903
People v. Brown     903
Notes and Questions     905
Conspiracy Liability     906
Pinkerton v. United States     906
Notes and Questions     906
Vicarious Liability     906
Commonwealth v. Koczwara      906
Notes and Questions     911
Corporate Liability     912
American Law Institute-Model Penal Code and Commentaries, Comment to [section] 2.07     912
State v. Christy Pontiac-GMC, Inc.     912
Pamela H. Bucy-Corporate Ethos: A Standard for Imposing Corporate Criminal Liability     916
Notes and Questions     918
John C. Coffee, Jr.-''No Soul To Damn: No Body to Kick'': An Unscandalized Inquiry Into the Problem of Corporate Punishment     920
Notes and Questions     925
Theft     928
Introductory Comment     928
Larceny     929
Actus Reus     929
''Trespassory Taking (Caption) and Carrying Away (Asportation) * * *''     929
Lee v. State     929
Rexv. Chisser     930
Notes and Questions     930
United States v. Mafnas     931
Notes and Questions     932
Topolewski v. State     934
Rex v. Pear     938
Notes and Questions     939
Brooks v. State     939
Notes and Questions     941
''* * * of the Personal Property of Another * * *''     941
Lund v. Commonwealth     941
Notes and Questions      944
Mens Rea: '' * * * With the Intent to Steal the Property''     945
People v. Brown     945
Notes and Questions     946
People v. Davis     949
Notes and Questions     953
Embezzlement     953
Rex v. Bazeley     953
Notes and Questions     957
False Pretenses     957
People v. Ingram     957
Notes and Questions     958
People v. Whight     959
Notes and Questions     962
Federal Mail, Wire, and Computer Fraud     962
United States v. Czubinski     962
Notes and Questions     969
Model Penal Code     970
Index     1039 

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