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Doing Philosophy : An Introduction Through Thought Experiments

Doing Philosophy : An Introduction Through Thought Experiments - 2nd edition

Doing Philosophy : An Introduction Through Thought Experiments - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 9780072878271

ISBN10: 0072878274

Doing Philosophy : An Introduction Through Thought Experiments by Theodore Schick and Lewis Vaughn - ISBN 9780072878271
Edition: 2ND 03
Copyright: 2003
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company
International: No
Doing Philosophy : An Introduction Through Thought Experiments by Theodore Schick and Lewis Vaughn - ISBN 9780072878271

ISBN13: 9780072878271

ISBN10: 0072878274

Edition: 2ND 03

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Doing Philosophy helps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. By acquainting students with philosophical theories and the thought experiments used to test them, this text fosters active learning and helps students become better thinkers.

Author Bio

Schick, Theodore : Muhlenberg College

Vaughn, Lewis :

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1 The Philosophical Enterprise

Section 1.1 Explaining the Possibility of the Impossible: Philosophical Problems and Theories

Philosophical Problems
The Stakes in Philosophical Inquiry
The Mind-Body Problem
The Problem of Free Will
The Problem of Personal Identity
The Problem of Moral Relativism
The Problem of Evil
The Problem of Skepticism
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Socrates and the Socratic Method
Science and the Scientific Method
Logical versus Causal Possibility

Section 1.2 Evidence and Inference: Proving your Point

Deductive Arguments
Inductive Arguments
Informal Fallacies

Section 1.3 The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments

How Are Thought Experiments Possible?
Criticizing Thought Experiments
Conceivability and Possibility
Scientific Thought Experiments
C. J. Ducasse, "The Place of Philosophy in a University Education"
Brand Blanshard, "The Philosophic Enterprise"
Robert Nozick, "Philosophy as an Art Form"

CHAPTER 2 The Mind-Body Problem

Section 2.1 The Ghost in the Machine: Mind as Soul

Descartes's Doubt
I Think, Therefore I Am
The Conceivability Argument
The Divisibility Argument
The Causal Impotence of the Mental
The Causal Closure of the Physical
The Problem of Other Minds

Section 2.2 You Are What You Eat: Mind as Body

Logical Positivism
Logical Behaviorism
The Identity Theory

Section 2.3 I, Robot: Mind as Software

Artificial Intelligence
Functionalism and Feeling
The Turing Test

Section 2.4 There Ain't No Such Thing as Ghosts: Mind as Myth

Folk Psychology
Subjective Knowledge

Section 2.5 The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mind as Quality

Primitive Intentionality
Mental Dependence
Downward Causation
Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditations I and II"
Richard Taylor, "Materialism vs. Dualism"
Alan Turing, "The Imitation Game"
David Chalmers, "The Puzzle of Concious Experience"
Thomas D. Davis, "Strange Behavior"

CHAPTER 3 Free Will and Determinism

Section 3.1 The Luck of the Draw: Freedom as Chance

Hard Determinism

Section 3.2 The Mother of Invention: Freedom as Necessity

Traditional Compatibilism
Hierarchical Compatibilism

Section 3.3 Control Yourself: Freedom as Self-Determination

The Case for Freedom
Robert Blatchford, "The Delusion of Free Will"
W. T. Stace, "The Problem of Free Will"
Robert Nozick, "Choice and Indeterminism"
Thomas D. Davis, "Please Don't Tell Me How the Story Ends"

CHAPTER 4 The Problem of Personal Identity

Section 4.1 We Are Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On: Self as Substance

The Soul Theory

Section 4.2 Golden Memories: Self as Psyche

The Memory Theory
The Reduplication Problem

Section 4.3 You Can't Step into the Same River Twice: Self as Process

The Brain Theory
Split Brains
Closest Continuer Theories
Identity and What Matters in Survival
Identity and What Matters in Responsibility
Explaining the Self
John Locke, "Of Identity and Diversity"
Thomas Reid, "On Mr. Locke's Account of Personal Identity"
Derek Parfit, "Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons"
Ray Kurzweil, "Live Forever"

CHAPTER 5 The Problem of Relativism and Morality

Section 5.1 Don't Question Authority: Might Makes Right

Subjective Absolutism
Subjective Relativism
Cultural Relativism
The Divine Command Theory
Are There Universal Moral Principles?

Section 5.2 The End Justifies the Means: Good Makes Right

Ethical Egoism

Section 5.3 Much Obliged: Duty Makes Right

Kant's Categorical Imperative
Ross's Prima Facie Duties
Rawls's Contractarianism
Nozick's Libertarianism
The Social Contract
The Ethics of Care
Making Ethical Decisions

Section 5.4 Character is Destiny: Virtue Makes Right

The Virtuous Utilitarian
The Virtuous Kantian
The Purpose of Morality
Aristotle on Virtue
MacIntyre on Virtue
Virtue Ethics
W. T. Stace, "Are Ethical Values Relative?"
Jeremy Bentham, "Of the Principle of Utility"
Immanuel Kant, "Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative"
John Rawls, "The Original Position and Justification"
Ursula K. Leguin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"

CHAPTER 6 The Problem of Evil and the Existence of God

Section 6.1 The Mysterious Universe: God as Creator

The Traditional Cosmological Argument
The Kalam Cosmological Argument
The Teleological Argument
The Argument from Miracles
The Argument from Religious Experience
The Ontological Argument
Pascal's Wager
The Meaning of Life
The Verdict

Section 6.2 When Bad Things Happen to Good People: God as Troublemaker

The Ontological Defense
The Knowledge Defense
The Free-Will Defense
The Ideal-Humanity Defense
The Soul-Building Defense
The Finite-God Defense
The Leap of Faith
Religion Without God
St. Thomas Aquinas, "The Five Ways"
David Hume, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion"
B.C. Johnson, "God and the Problem of Evil"
Michael Martin, "The Miracle Sleuth"

CHAPTER 7 The Problem of Skepticism and Knowledge

Section 7.1 Things Aren't Always What They Seem: Skepticism about Skepticism

Cartesian Doubt
Cartesian Certainty
Reasonable Doubt

Section 7.2 Facing Reality: Perception and the External World

Direct Realism
Representative Realism

Section 7.3 What Do You Know? Knowing What Knowledge Is

The Defeasibility Theory
The Causal Theory
The Reliability Theory
The Explanationist Theory
Rene Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation IV"
George Berkeley, "Of the Principles of Human Knowledge"
Edmund L. Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"
Thomas D. Davis, "Why Don't You Just Wake Up!"