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Educational Research : Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches

Educational Research : Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches - 2nd edition

Educational Research : Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches - 2nd edition

ISBN13: 9780205361267

ISBN10: 0205361269

Educational Research : Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches by Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen - ISBN 9780205361267
Edition: 2ND 04
Copyright: 2004
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
International: No
Educational Research : Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches by Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen - ISBN 9780205361267

ISBN13: 9780205361267

ISBN10: 0205361269

Edition: 2ND 04

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The Second Edition of Educational Research is an informal and highly readable text that provides students with a clear and in-depth understanding of the different kinds of research--including technology-based--that are used in education today.

This text introduces students to the fundamental logic of empirical research and explores the sources of research ideas. Detailed descriptions guide students through the design and implementation of actual research studies with a balanced examination of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research, serving as one of the book's strongest features. While quantitative research strategies are covered extensively, the text also discusses various qualitative approaches such as ethnography, historical methods, phenomenology, grounded theory, and case studies. This new edition addresses the use of technology in conducting educational research, incorporating links to a database of journal articles, extensive discussion of technologically-based research exercises, and a complete companion website.

The authors present detailed, step-by-step coverage of the key elements of research, including sampling techniques, ethical considerations, data collection methods, measurement, judging validity, experimental and non-experimental methods, descriptive and inferential statistics, qualitative data analysis, and report preparation.


  • This Research Edition incorporates key term icons and chapter-ending activities to make use of the Research Navigator database of journals accessible through a fully-stocked companion web site.
  • A user-friendly presentation removes the intimidation of educational research and makes the process accessible to all students.
  • Integrates the presentation of quantitative and qualitative research so students learn how to carry out each type of research and how to judge the quality of research.
  • Unlike leading competitors, this text offers a full chapter on data analysis in qualitative research (Ch. 17).
  • Includes an in-depth discussion of the ethical issues involved in research to give students the information they need to conduct research with integrity and honesty.
  • In-text review questions, end-of-chapter summaries, study questions, and exercises help students review important material.
  • Learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter focus student thinking.
  • Terms boldfaced within the text and defined in chapter margins reinforce retention of key concepts.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

I. Introduction.

1. Introduction to Educational Research.

Why Study Educational Research?
Areas of Educational Research.
Examples of Educational Research.
General Kinds of Research.
Sources of Knowledge.
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation.
Objectives of Science.
Overview of Book.
How to Get Started.

2. Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research.

Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms.
Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research.
Qualitative Research Methods.
Mixed Research Methods.
Our Research Typology.

II. Planning the Research Study.

3. Developing Research Questions and Proposal Prepositions.

Sources of Research Ideas.
Review of the Literature.
Literature Search and the Internet.
Feasibility of the Study.
Statement of the Research Problem.
Statement of Purpose of the Study.
Statement of Research Questions.
Formulating Hypotheses.
The Research Plan or Research Proposal.
Consumer Use of the Literature.

4. Research Ethics.

What Are Research Ethics?
Ethical Concerns.
Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans.
Informed Consent.
Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants.
Additional Consent.
Freedom to Withdraw.
Protection from Mental and Physical Harm.
Institutional Review Board.


5. Standardized Measurement and Assessment.

Defining Measurement.
Scales of Measurement.
Assumptions Underlying Testing and Measurement.
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure.
Educational and Psychological Tests.
Sources of Information About Tests.

6. Methods of Data Collection.

Focus Groups.
Secondary Data.

7. Sampling.

Terminology Used in Sampling.
Random Sampling Techniques.
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques.
Random Selection and Random Assignment.
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used.
Sampling in Qualitative Research.

8. Validity of Research.

Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research.
Statistical Conclusion Validity
Internal Validity.
External Validity.
Construct Representation.
Research Validity in Qualitative Research.


9. Experimental Research.

The Experiment.
Independent Variable Manipulation.
Control of Confounding Variables.
Experimental Research Designs.
10. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Designs.
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs.
Single-Case Experimental Designs.
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs.
Group Comparison or Single-Case Designs.

11. Nonexperimental Quantitative Research.

Steps in Nonexperimental Research.
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research.
Causal-Comparative and Correlational Research.
Three Necessary Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships.
Applying the Three Necessary Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research.
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research.
Time Dimension in Research.
Classifying Nonexperimental Research Methods by Research Objective.

12. Qualitative Research.

Case Study Research.
Grounded Theory.

13. Historical Research.

What Is Historical Research.
Significance of Historical Research.
Historical Research Methodology.
Identification of the Research Topic and Formulation of the Research Problem or Question.
How to Locate Historical Information.
Evaluation of Historical Sources.
Data Synthesis and Report Preparation.

14. Mixed Method and Mixed Model Research.

The Research Continuum.
Types of Mixed Research Methods.
Stages in the Mixed Research Process.
Limitations of Mixed Research.

V. Analyzing the Data.

15. Descriptive Statistics.

Descriptive Statistics.
Frequency Distributions.
Graphic Representations of Data.
Measures of Central Tendency.
Measures of Variability.
Measures of Relative Standing.
Examining Relationships Among Variables.

16. Inferential Statistics.

Sampling Distributions.
Hypothesis Testing.
Hypothesis Testing in Practice.

17. Data Analysis in Qualitative Research.

Interim Analysis.
Data Entry and Storage.
Coding and Developing Category Systems.
Creating Hierarchical Category Systems.
Showing Relationships Among Categories.
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis.

VI. Writing the Research Report.

18. Preparation of the Research Report.

General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report.
Writing Quantitative Research Reports Using the APA Style.
Writing Qualitative Research Reports.
Writing Mixed Research Reports.

Appendix A: Quantitative Research Article Abstract and Link.
Appendix B: Qualitative Research Article Abstract and Link.
Appendix C: Mixed Research Article Abstract and Link.