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First Aid and CPR

First Aid and CPR - 4th edition

First Aid and CPR - 4th edition

ISBN13: 9780763731946

ISBN10: 0763731943

First Aid and CPR by National Safety Council Publishing Staff - ISBN 9780763731946
Edition: 4TH 01
Copyright: 2001
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
International: No
First Aid and CPR by National Safety Council Publishing Staff - ISBN 9780763731946

ISBN13: 9780763731946

ISBN10: 0763731943

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When an emergency strikes, knowing what to do is critical. That is why the National Safety Council's First Aid and CPR course is invaluable. The foundation of the course is First Aid and CPR, Fourth Edition. This book is the cornerstone of an integrated training program that combines comprehensive content on first aid and CPR with exciting new features, design, and technology to better support instructors and to prepare students for any emergency Divided into two sections, the program will teach:

1. Students to master necessary skills for the administration of CPR to adults, children, and infants. They will learn how to recognize a life-threatening emergency, how to provide basic life support, what to do in the case of an airway obstruction or choking, and how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED).

2 . Students how to recognize the signs and symptoms of injuries and sudden illness. Crucial information about how to deal with emergencies like shock, burns, strains, strokes, and seizures is shared. Upon successful completion of the course, students will receive nationally recognized First Aid and CPR course completion cards, free of cost.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Part I. Introduction

Chapter 1. Background Information Need for First Aid Training

Value to Self
Value to Others
Value in Remote Locations
What is First Aid?
Legal Considerations
Refusing Help
Abandonment Negligence
Good Samaritan
Questions 1

Chapter 2. Action at an Emergency Bystander Intervention

Ignorance and Helping Behavior
Confusion about What is an Emergency
Other Factors that Influence
Whether a Bystander Helps
Quality of Help Provided by Bystanders
What Should be Done?
Rescuer Reactions
Scene Survey
How to Call the EMS
Bloodborne Diseases
Airborne Diseases
Death The Dying Victim
The Stages of Grieving Survivors of the Dead
Study Questions 2

Part II. Victim Assessment

Chapter 3. The Human Body

The Respiratory System
Pharynx and Trachea
Mechanics of Breathing
The Circulatory System
Heart Blood
Vessels Blood
The Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
The Skeletal System
Spinal Column
Leg Bones
Arm Bones
Muscular System Skeletal
Muscles Smooth Muscles
Cardiac Muscles
Skin Study
Questions 3

Chapter 4. Finding Out What's Wrong : Victim Assessment Victim

Assessment Initial Assessment Skill
Scan Initial Assessment Immediate
Threats to Life
Airway Breathing Circulation
Expose the Injury Physical Exam and SAMPLE History
Injured Victim Skill Scan Physical Exam:
Injury D-O-T-S
Suddenly Ill Victim
Medical Identification Tags
Ongoing Assessment Flowchart Victim Assessment
Study Questions 4

Part III. Life-Threatening Emergencies

Chapter 5. Basic Life Support Adult and Child Basic Life Support

Check Responsiveness
Activate EMS
Position the Unresponsive
Victim Open the Airway
Check for Breathing
Perform Rescue Breathing Mouth-to-Mouth
Method Skill Scan
Turning Victim Face Up
Moving the Victim into Recovery Position
Method Mouth-to-Stoma
Method Mouth-to-Barrier Device
Perform External Chest Compressions
Two-Rescuer CPR
Switching Functions Airway Obstruction (Choking)
Adult and Child Recognizing Choking Abdominal Thrusts (Heimlich Maneuver)
Finger Sweep of the Mouth
Conscious Choking Victims
Unconscious Choking Victims
Infant Basic Life Support
Infant Rescue Breathing and CPR Positioning an Unresponsive Infant
Opening the Airway Airway Obstruction
Infant Study Questions 5

Chapter 6. Bleeding and Shock Bleeding External Bleeding

What to Do
Skill Scan Bleeding Control Internal Bleeding
What to Look For
What to Do Flowchart Bleeding Shock (Hypoperfusion)
What to Look For
What to Do Flowchart
Shock Skill Scan
Positioning the Shock Victim
Common Causes of Anaphylaxis
What to Look For
What to Do Flowchart Anaphylaxis
Study Questions 6

Part IV Injuries

Chapter 7 Wounds

Open Wounds
Cleaning a Wound
Covering a Wound
When to Seek Medical Attention
Wound Infection
Tetanus Amputations
Types of Amputations Flowchart
Amputations Blisters Flowchart
Impaled Objects
Impaled Object in the Check
Impaled Object in the Eye
Cactus Spines
Closed Wounds
Wounds that Require Medical Attention Sutures (Stitches)
Gunshot Wounds
Legal Aspects Study Questions 7

Chapter 8. Dressings and Bandages

Dressings Types of Dressings
Applying a Sterile Dressing Bandages
Types of Bandages
Applying a Roller Bandage
Skill Scan Bandaging - Roller (self-adhering)
Skill Scan Securing Roller Bandages
Applying a Triangular Bandage Skill Scan Bandaging-Cravat
Study Questions 8

Chapter 9. Burns

Thermal Burns
Burn Care
Care of First-Degree Burns
Care of Second-Degree Burns
Care of Large Second-Degree Burns
Care of Third-Degree Burns
Scald Burns
Chemical Burns Flowchart
Chemical Burns
Electrocution Flowchart
Electrocution Contact with a Power Line (Outdoors)
Contact inside Buildings
Study Questions 9

Chapter 10. Head and Spine Injuries

Head Injuries
Scalp Wounds
Skill Fracture
Brain Injuries
Eye Injuries Flowchart
Head Injuries Flowchart
Eye Injuries
Ear Injuries
Nose Injuries Flowchart
Nose Bleeds
Dental Injuries Flowchart
Dental Injuries
Spinal Injuries Flowchart
Spinal Injuries
Skill Scan Checking for Spinal Cord Injuries
Study Questions 10

Chapter 11. Chest, Abdominal, and Pelvis Injuries

Chest Injuries Flowchart
Chest Injuries
Rib Fractures
Chest Impaled Object in Chest
Sucking Chest Wounds
Abdominal Injuries Flowchart
Abdominal Injuries
Blow to the Abdomen
Penetrating Wound
Protruding Organs
Pelvis Injuries
Study Questions 11

Chapter 12. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries

Skill Scan Checking an Extremity's
CSM Joint Injuries Dislocations
Muscle Injuries
Study Questions 12

Chapter 13. Extremity Injuries Assessment

Types of Injuries
First Aid Shoulder Injuries
Shoulder Dislocation (Separation)
Clavicle Fracture
Tendonitis (Painful Shoulder)
Humerus (Upper-Arm)
Fracture Elbow Injuries
Tennis Elbow
Little Leaguer's Elbow
Radius and Ulna (Forearm) Fractures
Wrist Fractures
Hand Injuries
Crushed Hands Flowchart
Finger Injuries
Hip-Joint Injuries
Hip Dislocation
Hip Fracture
Thigh Injuries
Femur (Thighbone) Fracture
Charley Horse
Muscle Strain
Knee Injuries
Knee Fracture
Knee Dislocation
Patella Dislocation Flowchart
Muscle Injuries Flowchart
Sprains, Contusions, Dislocations
Knee Sprain Contusion
Lower-Leg Injuries
Tibia and Fibula Fractures Contusion
Muscle Cramp
Shin Splints
Ankle and Foot Injuries Flowchart
Ankle Injuries
RICE Procedure for Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries
R=Rest I=Ice C=Compression E=Elevation Skill Scan RICE Procedure for an Ankle
Study Questions 13
Skill Scan RICE Procedures for an Ankle

Chapter 14. Splinting the Extremities

Types of Splints
Splinting Guidelines
Arm Slings
Splinting Specific Areas
Shoulder Humerus (Upper Arm)
Elbow Forearm
Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
Pelvis and Hip
Skill Scan Splinting--Upper Extremities Femur (Thigh) Knee Lower Leg Ankle and Foot Skill Scan Splinting --
Knee Skill Scan Splinting -- Lower Extremities
Study Questions 14

Part V. Medical Emergencies

Chapter 15. Sudden Illnesses

Heart Attack
Angina Stroke (Brain Attack) Flowchart
Heart Attack
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Altered Mental Status
Fainting Flowchart
Fainting Seizures Flowchart
Diabetic Emergencies
Low Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Flowchart
Diabetic Emergencies
Abdominal Distress
Abdominal Pain Nausea and Vomiting
Study Questions 15

Chapter 16. Poisoning

Types of Poison Ingested (Swallowed)
Poison Flowchart Swallowed
Poison Alcohol and Drug Emergencies
Alcohol Intoxication Drugs
Amphetamines and Cocaine Hallucinogens
Inhaled Substances
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Flowchart
Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Stinging Nettle
Study Questions 16

Chapter 17. Bites and Stings

Animal Bites
Human Bites
Types of Human Bites
Snakebites Flowchart
Snake Bites
Pit Viper Bites Flowchart
Insect stings
Coral Snake Bites
Nonpoisonous Snakebites
Insect Stings
Spider Bites
Black Widow Spiders Flowchart
Spider Bites and Scorpion Stings
Brown Recluse Spiders
Tarantulas Common
Aggressive House Spider
Scorpion Stings
Centipede Bites
Tick Bites Flowchart
Removing Ticks
Lyme Disease Marine-Animal Injuries
Animals that Bite, Rip, or Puncture
Barracudas and Eels Animals that Sting
Animals that Puncture (by Spine) Flowchart
Marine Animal Injuries
Study Questions 17

Chapter 18. Cold-Related Emergencies

How Cold Affects the Body
Heat Loss from the Body Susceptibility to Cold Injury
Effects of Altitude Effects of Water
Effects of Wind Effects of Metals and Liquid Fuels
Minimizing Effects of Cold on the Body
Nonfreezing Cold Injuries
Freezing Cold Injuries
Hypothermia Flowchart
Frostbite Types of Exposure
Types of Hypothermia Flowchart
Hypothermia Dehydration
Study Questions 18

Chapter 19. Heat-Related Emergencies

How the Body Stays Cool
Water Loss
Electrolyte Loss Effects of Humidity
Who is at Risk?
Heat Illnesses
Heat Cramps
Heat Exhaustion
Heatstroke Other
Heat Illnesses
How Hot it Feels Flowchart
Heat Related Emergencies
Study Questions 19

Part VI. Special Situations

Chapter 20. Childbirth and Gynecologic Emergencies

Predelivery Emergencies
Vaginal Bleeding in Late Pregnancy
Vaginal Bleeding Caused by Trauma
Delivery Stages of Labor
Delivery Procedures
Vaginal Bleeding
Following Delivery Initial Care of the Newborn
Postdelivery Care of the Mother
Abnormal Deliveries
Skill Scan Childbirth Flowchart
Childbirth Gynecologic Emergencies
Vaginal Bleeding
Sexual Assault and Rape
Study Questions 20

Chapter 21. Behavioral Emergencies

Injury Typical Reactions
Aggressive, Hostile, and Violent Behavior
Calming a Person
Sexual Assault and Rape
Child Abuse and Neglect
Spouse Abuse
Elder Abuse
Study Questions 21

Chapter 22. Wilderness First Aid

Cardiac Arrest
CPR for Hypothermia Victims
CPR for Avalanche Victims
CPR for Lightening-Strike
Victims Dislocations
Shoulder Dislocation
Finger Dislocation
Patella (Kneecap)
Dislocation Spine Injury
Assessing a Possible Spine-Injury
Victim Stabilizing a Spine Injury Splinting
Femur Fractures
Avalanche Burial
Other Altitude Related Illnesses
Lightening How Lightening Injures
Differences between injuries from Lightening
High-Voltage Electricity and from Lightening
Causes of Death and Injuries
Wild Animal Attacks
Wilderness Evacuation
When to Evacuate Guidelines for Ground Evacuation
Guidelines for Helicopter Evacuation
Study Questions 22

Chapter 23. Rescuing and Moving Victims

Victim Rescue
Water Rescue
Cold-Water Immersion
Ice Rescue
Electrical Emergency Rescue
Hazardous Materials
Motor Vehicle Accidents
Threatening Dogs
Farm Animals
Confined Spaces Triage: What to Do with Multiple Victims
Finding Life-Threatened Victims
Moving Victims
Emergency Moves
Nonemergency Moves
Skill Scan Drags
Skill Scans One-Person Moves
Skill Scans Two/Three-Person Moves
Study Questions 23

Appendix A First Aid Supplies
Appendix B Medication Information
Appendix C Automated External Defibrillators
Quick Emergency Guide