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General Chemistry (Text Only)

General Chemistry (Text Only) - 7th edition

General Chemistry (Text Only) - 7th edition

ISBN13: 9780618118373

ISBN10: 0618118373

General Chemistry (Text Only) by Darrell D. Ebbing and Steven D. Gammon - ISBN 9780618118373
Cover type: Hardback
Edition: 7TH 02
Copyright: 2002
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
International: No
General Chemistry (Text Only) by Darrell D. Ebbing and Steven D. Gammon - ISBN 9780618118373

ISBN13: 9780618118373

ISBN10: 0618118373

Cover type: Hardback
Edition: 7TH 02

List price: $300.00

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The Seventh Edition of General Chemistry retains all of the qualities that have made it a trusted and authoritative first-year text for two decades. Its hallmark ability to teach quantitative problem solving is complemented by new features that better address today's students by focusing on key themes of conceptual understanding and visualization.

  • New! The new edition places greater emphasis on conceptual understanding. An icon identifies strategies in worked examples, concept checks, and end-of-chapter conceptual questions.
  • New! The text features a substantially revised art program that allows enhanced visualization of core concepts and helps students connect the macroscopic to the molecular level. Student technology tools carry this even further.
  • New! "A Chemist Looks At" boxes highlight chemistry's real-world applications to medicine, health, frontiers of science, and the environment. Students can see how the material in the text relates to their future careers, their world, and their everyday lives.
  • New! End-of-chapter "Media Activities" help students use technology resources to explore concepts and solve problems.
  • New! Chapter 13, "Solid Materials of Modern Technology," includes cutting-edge developments and information of particular value to engineering students.

Author Bio

Ebbing, Darrell D. : Wayne State University

Darrell Ebbing has taught general chemistry for more than thirty years and is now retired from Wayne State University. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Indiana University.

Gammon, Steven D. : University of Idaho

Steven D. Gammon is an associate professor of chemistry at the University of Idaho and a leader in the development of multimedia-based software for chemical education. He has contributed greatly to the increased emphasis on conceptual understanding in the seventh edition of General Chemistry.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Note: Each chapter concludes with A Checklist for Review, Review Questions, Conceptual Problems, Practice Problems, General Problems, Cumulative-Skills Problems

Basics of Chemistry

1. Chemistry and Measurement
An Introduction to Chemistry

1.1 Modern Chemistry: A Brief Glimpse
1.2 Experiment and Explanation
1.3 Law of Conservation of Mass

A Chemist Looks At: The Birth of the Post-It Note

1.4 Matter: Physical State and Chemical Constitution

Instrumental Methods: Separation of Mixtures by Chromatography
Physical Measurements

1.5 Measurement and Significant Figures
1.6 SI Units
1.7 Derived Units
1.8 Units and Dimensional Analysis (Factor-Label Method)

2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure

2.1 Atomic Theory of Matter
2.2 The Structure of the Atom
2.3 Nuclear Structure: Isotopes
2.4 Atomic Weights
2.5 Periodic Table of the Elements

A Chemist Looks At: Thirty Seconds on the Island of Stability
Chemical Substances: Formulas and Names

2.6 Chemical Formulas: Molecular and Ionic Substances
2.7 Organic Compounds
2.8 Naming Simple Compounds

Chemical Reactions: Equations

2.9 Writing Chemical Equations
2.10 Balancing Chemical Equations

3. Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
Mass and Moles of Substance

3.1 Molecular Weight and Formula Weight
3.2 The Mole Concept

Determining Chemical Formulas

3.3 Mass Percentages from the Formula
3.4 Elemental Analysis: Percentages of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
3.5 Determining Formulas

Instrumental Methods: Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Formula
Stoichiometry: Quantitative Relations in Chemical Reactions

3.6 Molar Interpretation of a Chemical Equation
3.7 Amounts of Substances in a Chemical Reaction
3.8 Limiting Reactant: Theoretical and Percentage Yields

4. Chemical Reactions: An Introduction
Ions in Aqueous Solution and Solubility Rules

4.1 Ionic Theory of Solutions
4.2 Molecular and Ionic Equations

Types of Chemical Reactions

4.3 Precipitation Reactions
4.4 Acid-Base Reactions
4.5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
4.6 Balancing Simple Oxidation-Reduction Equations

Working with Solutions

4.7 Molar Concentrations
4.8 Diluting Solutions

Quantitative Analysis

4.9 Gravimetric Analysis
4.10 Volumetric Analysis

5. The Gaseous State
Gas Laws

5.1 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement
5.2 Empirical Gas Laws

A Chemist Looks At: Nitric Oxide Gas and Biological Signaling

5.3 The Ideal Gas Law
5.4 Stoichiometry Problems Involving Gas Volumes
5.5 Gas Mixtures: Law of Partial Pressure

Kinetic-Molecular Theory

5.6 Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
5.7 Molecular Speeds: Diffusion and Effusion
5.8 Real Gases

A Chemist Looks At: Carbon Dioxide Gas and the Greenhouse Effect

6. Thermochemistry
Understanding Heats of Reaction

6.1 Energy and Its Units
6.2 Heat of Reaction
6.3 Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change
6.4 Thermochemical Equations

A Chemist Looks At: Lucifers and Other Matches

6.5 Applying Stoichiometry to Heats of Reaction
6.6 Measuring Heats of Reaction

Using Heats of Reaction

6.7 Hess's Law
6.8 Standard Enthalpies of Formation
6.9 Fuels--Foods, Commercial Fuels, and Rocket Fuels

Atomic and Molecular Structure

7. Quantum Theory of the Atom
Light Waves, Photons, and the Bohr Theory

7.1 The Wave Nature of Light
7.2 Quantum Effects and Photons

A Chemist Looks At: Zapping Hamburger with Gamma Rays

7.3 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

A Chemist Looks At: Lasers and Compact Disc Players
Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Numbers

7.4 Quantum Mechanics

Instrumental Methods: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

7.5 Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals

8. Electron Configurations and Periodicity
Electronic Structure of Atoms

8.1 Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

Instrumental Methods: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

8.2 Building-Up Principle and the Periodic Table

Instrumental Methods: X Rays, Atomic Numbers, and Orbital Structure (Photoelectron Spectroscopy)

8.3 Writing Electron Configurations Using the Periodic Table
8.4 Orbital Diagrams of Atoms: Hund's Rule

A Chemist Looks At: Levitating Frogs and People
Periodicity of the Elements

8.5 Mendeleev's Predictions from the Periodic Table
8.6 Some Periodic Properties
8.7 Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements

9. Ionic and Covalent Bonding
Ionic Bond

9.1 Describing Ionic Bonds
9.2 Electron Configurations of Ions

A Chemist Looks At: Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry

9.3 Ionic Radii

Covalent Bond

9.4 Describing Covalent Bonds

A Chemist Looks At: Chemical Bonds in Nitroglycerin

9.5 Polar Covalent Bond: Electronegativity
9.6 Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas
9.7 Delocalized Bonding: Resonance
9.8 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
9.9 Formal Charge and Lewis Formulas
9.10 Bond Length and Bond Order
9.11 Bond Energy

Instrumental Methods: Infrared Spectroscopy and Vibrations of Chemical Bonds

10. Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory
Molecular Geometry and Directional Bonding

10.1 The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model

A Chemist Looks At: Left-Handed and Right-Handed Molecules

10.2 Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry
10.3 Valence Bond Theory

A Chemist Looks At: Orbitals--The Glue of Chemical Bonding

10.4 Description of Multiple Bonding

Molecular Orbital Theory

10.5 Principles of Molecular Orbital Theory
10.6 Electron Configurations of Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements
10.7 Molecular Orbitals and Delocalized Bonding

A Chemist Looks At: Human Vision
A Chemist Looks At: Stratospheric Ozone (An Absorber of Ultraviolet Rays)

11. States of Matter: Liquids and Solids

11.1 Comparison of Gases, Liquids and Solids

Changes of State

11.2 Phase Transitions
11.3 Phase Diagrams

A Chemist Looks At: Removing Caffeine from Coffee
Liquid State

11.4 Properties of Liquids: Surface Tension and Viscosity
11.5 Intermolecular Forces: Explaining Liquid Properties

Solid State

11.6 Classification of Solids by Type of Attraction of Units
11.7 Crystalline Solids; Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells

A Chemist Looks At: Liquid-Crystal Displays

11.8 Structures of Some Crystalline Solids
11.9 Calculations Involving Unit-Cell Dimensions
11.10 Determining Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction

Instrumental Methods: Automated X-Ray Diffractometry
A Chemist Looks At: Water: (A Special Substance for Planet Earth)

12. Solutions
Solution Formation

12.1 Types of Solutions
12.2 Solubility and the Solution Process

A Chemist Looks At: Hemoglobin Solubility and Sickle-Cell Anemia

12.3 Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility

Colligative Properties

12.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration
12.5 Vapor Pressure of a Solution
12.6 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

A Chemist Looks At: Cold Fish That Don't Freeze

12.7 Osmosis
12.8 Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions

Colloid Formation

12.9 Colloids

A Chemist Looks At: The World's Smallest Test Tubes

13. Solid Materials of Modern Technology
Metals and Metallurgy

13.1 Natural Sources of Metals
13.2 Metallurgy
13.3 Bonding in Metals

A Chemist Looks At: Superconductivity
Nonmetallic Materials

13.4 Diamond, Graphite, the Fullerenes and Nanotechnology

A Chemist Looks At: The Discovery of Buckminsterfullerene

13.5 Semiconductors
13.6 Silica and Silicates

A Chemist Looks At: Aerogels, the Lightest "Solids"

13.7 Ceramics

A Chemist Looks At: Ceramics, Ceramics Glaze, and Glass

13.8 Composites

Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium

14. Rates of Reaction
Reaction Rates

14.1 Definition of Reaction Rate
14.2 Experimental Determination of Rate
14.3 Dependence of Rate on Concentration
14.4 Change of Concentration with Time
14.5 Temperature and Rate; Collision and Transition-State Theories
14.6 Arrhenius Equation

Reaction Mechanisms

14.7 Elementary Reactions
14.8 The Rate Law and the Mechanism
14.9 Catalysis

A Chemist Looks At: Seeing Molecules React

15. Chemical Equilibrium
Describing Chemical Equilibrium

15.1 Chemical Equilibrium--A Dynamic Equilibrium
15.2 The Equilibrium Constant
15.3 Heterogeneous Equilibria: Solvents in Homogeneous Equilibria

A Chemist Looks At: Slime Molds and Leopards' Spots
Using the Equilibrium Constant

15.4 Qualitatively Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant
15.5 Predicting the Direction of Reaction
15.6 Calculating the Equilibrium Concentrations

Changing the Reaction Conditions; Le Chatelier's Principle

15.7 Removing Products or Adding Reactants
15.8 Changing the Pressure and Temperature
15.9 Effect of a Catalyst

16. Acids and Bases
Acid-Base Concepts

16.1 Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases
16.2 Brønsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases
16.3 Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases

A Chemist Looks At: Taking Your Medicine
Acid and Base Strengths

16.4 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
16.5 Molecular Structure and Acid Strength

Self-Ionization of Water and pH

16.6 Self-Ionization of Water
16.7 Solutions of a Strong Acid or Base
16.8 The pH of a Solution

A Chemist Looks At: Unclogging the Sink and Other Chores

17. Acid-Base Equilibria
Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base

17.1 Acid-Ionization Equilibria
17.2 Polyprotic Acids

A Chemist Looks At: Acid Rain

17.3 Base-Ionization Equilibria
17.4 Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions

Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base with Another Solute

17.5 Common-Ion Effect
17.6 Buffers
17.7 Acid-Base Titration Curves

18. Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria
Solubility Equilibria

18.1 The Solubility Product Constant
18.2 Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect
18.3 Precipitation Calculations
18.4 Effect of pH on Solubility

A Chemist Looks At: Limestone Caves
Complex-Ion Equilibria

18.5 Complex-Ion Formation
18.6 Complex Ions and Solubility

An Application of Solubility Equilibria

18.7 Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions

19. Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

19.1 First Law of Thermodynamics; Enthalpy

Spontaneous Processes and Entropy

19.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
19.3 Standard Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

Free-Energy Concept

19.4 Free Energy and Spontaneity
19.5 Interpretation of Free Energy

Free Energy and Equilibrium Constants

19.6 Relating DG° to the Equilibrium Constant
19.7 Change of Free Energy with Temperature

20. Electrochemistry

20.1 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions

Voltaic Cells

20.2 Construction of Voltaic Cells
20.3 Notation for Voltaic Cells
20.4 Electromotive Force
20.5 Standard Cell emf's and Standard Electrode Potentials
20.6 Equilibrium Constants from emf's
20.7 Dependence of emf on Concentration
20.8 Some Commercial Voltaic Cells

Electrolytic Cells

20.9 Electrolysis of Molten Salts
20.10 Aqueous Electrolysis
20.11 Stoichiometry of Electrolysis

Chemistry of the Elements

21. Nuclear Chemistry
Radioactivity and Nuclear Bombardment Reactions

21.1 Radioactivity
21.2 Nuclear Bombardment Reactions
21.3 Radiations and Matter: Detection and Biological Effects
21.4 Rate of Radioactive Decay
21.5 Applications of Radioactive Isotopes

A Chemist Looks At: Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Energy of Nuclear Reactions

21.6 Mass-Energy Calculations
21.7 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

A Chemist Looks At: The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

22. Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements

22.1 General Observations About the Main-Group Elements

Chemistry of the Main-Group Metals

22.2 Group IA: The Alkali Metals
22.3 Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth Metals
22.4 Group IIIA and Group IVA Metals

Chemistry of the Nonmetals

22.5 Hydrogen
22.6 Group IVA: The Carbon Family
22.7 Group VA: Nitrogen and the Phosphorus Family
22.8 Group VIA: Oxygen and the Sulfur Family
22.9 Group VIIA: The Halogens
22.10 Group VIIA: The Noble Gases

23. The Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds
Properties of the Transition Elements

23.1 Periodic Trends in the Transition Elements
23.2 The Chemistry of Two Transition Metals

Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds

23.3 Formation and Structure of Complexes

A Chemist Looks At: The Stability of Chelates

23.4 Naming Coordination Compounds
23.5 Structure and Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
23.6 Valence Bond Theory of Complexes
23.7 Crystal Field Theory

A Chemist Looks At: The Cooperative Release of Oxygen from Oxyhemoglobin

24. Organic Chemistry

24.1 The Bonding of Carbon
24.2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
24.3 Alkenes and Alkynes
24.4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
24.5 Naming Hydrocarbons
24.6 Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen

25. Polymer Materials: Synthetic and Natural
Synthetic Polymers

25.1 Characteristics of Polymers
25.2 Synthetic Organic Polymers
25.3 Materials from Polymers

Biological Polymers

25.4 Proteins
25.5 Nucleic Acids

A Chemist Looks At: DNA Fingerprinting
Instrumental Methods: Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Atomic Force Microscopy