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Genetics of Fitness and Physical Performance

Genetics of Fitness and Physical Performance - 97 edition

Genetics of Fitness and Physical Performance - 97 edition

ISBN13: 9780873229517

ISBN10: 0873229517

Genetics of Fitness and Physical Performance by Claude Bouchard, Robert Malina and Louis Perusse - ISBN 9780873229517
Edition: 97
Copyright: 1997
Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
International: No
Genetics of Fitness and Physical Performance by Claude Bouchard, Robert Malina and Louis Perusse - ISBN 9780873229517

ISBN13: 9780873229517

ISBN10: 0873229517

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Genetics of Fitness and Physical Performance is the first comprehensive reference on the role of the genes in influencing individual variation in fitness and performance.

This essential compendium reviews the past 25 years of accumulated evidence on the genetic basis of health- and performance-related fitness phenotypes. Focusing on the interests of sport scientists, the authors provide insight into the significance of this research on nearly every aspect of the study of human physical activity.

The book presents the biological basis of heredity and explains the concepts and methods of genetic epidemiology and molecular biology that are necessary to understand this specialized field. With the rapid advances in molecular biology and the paradigms of human genetics, exercise scientists face a dynamic and vibrant new field. This book offers readers new opportunities to better understand atherosclerosis, noninsulin dependent diabetes, obesity, and hypertension by searching for single gene effects and identifying susceptibility genes.
The authors review the evidence on the role of the genes for human traits as it pertains to the exercise science field. And they explore the scientific, practical, and ethical issues that confront exercise scientists as progress is made in this field.

Genetics of Fitness and Physical Performance is vital reading for scholars in the field of exercise and sport science to understand how recent discoveries in genetics might shape their future research.

Author Bio

Bouchard, Claude : Universite Laval

Claude Bouchard, one of the world's leaders in the study of genetics and physical activity, is professor of exercise physiology and director of the Biology of Physical Activity Research Group at Université Laval in Sainte Foy, Quebec. He has an MSc in exercise physiology and a PhD in anthropological genetics.

For more than 20 years, Dr. Bouchard's research has focused on the genetic and molecular basis of human variation in body composition, physical fitness, and performance. This research has been supported by the Medical Research Council of Canada and other Canadian granting agencies as well as the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Dr. Bouchard has authored or coauthored several books, including Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, and has published more than 500 professional and scientific papers. He received the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society Sandoz Award in 1996 at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada meeting. In 1997 Dr. Bouchard gave the J.B. Wolffe Lecture at American College of Sports Medicine Clinic meeting in Denver.

Dr. Bouchard is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Society of Human Genetics. He recently has been elected as a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium.

Malina, Robert : Michigan State University

Robert M. Malina is professor of physical education and exercise science at Michigan State University and director of the Institute for the Study of Youth Sports. Before assuming his position at MSU, Dr. Malina was professor of kinesiology and anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin for 28 years. He has a PhD in both physical education and physical anthropology and has done extensive research on the growth, maturation, and performance of children and youth in the United States and abroad.

Dr. Malina has served as president of the Human Biology Council and the American Academy of Physical Education, editor of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, and section editor for growth and development for the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport and the Exercise and Sport Sciences Review. He is editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Human Biology. Dr. Malina is coauthor of the book, Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, and has published more than 300 professional and scientific papers.

In 1989, Dr. Malina was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Institute of Physical Education, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Human Biology Council, and an elected foreign member of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Perusse, Louis : Universite Laval / American College of Sports Medicine / American Society of Human Genetics

Dr. Louis Pérusse is research scholar and associate professor in the Department of Physical Education at Université Laval in Sainte Foy, Quebec. He has an MSc and PhD in physical activity sciences from Université Laval. He has also completed postdoctoral work in human genetics at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.

Dr. Pérusse's research has focused on the genetic epidemiology of various determinants of physical fitness. He has published his findings in more than 75 scholarly journals and books, including several papers on the role of genes on body composition and blood pressure.

Dr. Pérusse is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Society of Human Genetics.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

Statement of the Problem
Nature Versus Nurture
The Growing Power of the Biological Sciences
Necessary and Susceptibility Genes and Other Effects
The International Effort to Study the Human Genome
Content of the Book

Chapter 2. The Human Genome

The Human Genome
The Structure of DNA
From DNA to RNA to Proteins
The Human Gene
Genes and Proteins
Regulation of Gene Expression
Mitochondrial DNA

Chapter 3. Detection and Extent of Human Genetic Variation

Chromosomal Anomalies
Mutation and Genetic Variation
Genetic Polymorphism
Recombinant-DNA Technology
Detection of Genetic Variation
Extent of DNA Variation

Chapter 4. Understanding the Methods

Overview of Research Strategies
Human Studies
Assessment of Familial Aggregation
Assessment of Heritability
Detection of Major or Single Gene Effects
Detection of Genotype-Environment Interaction
Animal Studies

Chapter 5. Defining Performance, Fitness, and Health

Performance-Related Fitness
Health-Related Fitness
Individual Differences in Trainability
Determinants of Trainability

Chapter 6. Genetics and Health Status

Measuring Health Status
Genetic Effects in Health Status
Longevity and Aging

Chapter 7. Genetics of Metabolic Rate and Activity Level

Life Span and Gender Variability
Genetics of Resting Metabolic Rate and Thermic Effect of Food
Genetics of Activity Level

Chapter 8. Genetics of Dietary Intake

Life Span and Gender Variability
Genetics of Dietary Intake
Taste Preferences
Eating Behavior
Gene-Nutrient Interactions

Chapter 9. Genetics of Body Size and Physique Phenotypes

Life Span and Gender Variability
Genetics of Morphological Phenotypes

Chapter 10. Genetics of Body Fat and Fat Distribution

The Phenotypes
Life Span, Gender, and Population Variability
Genetic Epidemiology
Genetic-Environment Interactions
Contribution of Specific Genes
Genetics and Regional Fat Distribution
Is Obesity Inherited?

Chapter 11. Genetics and Skeletal Muscle Phenotypes

Gender and Age Difference in Muscle
Genetics of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Phenotypes
Genotype Training Interaction Effects in Skeletal Muscle

Chapter 12. Genetics of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Phenotypes

Life Span and Gender Variability
Genetics of Cardiac Structures and Functions
Genetics of Pulmonary Function
Genetics of Blood Pressure

Chapter 13. Genetics of Metabolic Fitness Phenotypes and Other Risk Factors

Life Span and Gender Variability
Blood Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins
Glucose and Insulin
Substrate Oxidation
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Systems
Other Risk Factors
Genotype-Environment Interaction
The Metabolic Syndrome

Chapter 14. Genetics and Motor Development

Changes During the Life Span
Genetics and Early Motor Development
Genetics and Movement Patterns
Motor Development in Individuals with Genetic Anomalies

Chapter 15. Genetics and Performance

Life Span and Gender Variability
Overview of Genetic Studies
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Motor Performance
Modeling Twin and Familial Resemblance
Responses to Training
Molecular Markers

Chapter 16. Molecular Medicine and Health-Related Fitness

Single Gene Diseases
Common Multifactoral Diseases
The Era of Molecular Medicine
Definition of Susceptibility and Risk at the Molecular Level
Implications for Health-Related Fitness
A Vision of the Year 2500

Chapter 17. Genes and High Performance Sports

Science and High-Performance Sports
Current Understanding of the Role of Genes
Talent Detection
Dramatic Changes to be Expected

Chapter 18. Ethical Issues

Implications for Society
Considerations for the Exercise Scientist
Considerations for Sport Governing Bodies