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Infants and Children : Prenatal Through Middle Childhood

Infants and Children : Prenatal Through Middle Childhood - 4th edition

Infants and Children : Prenatal Through Middle Childhood - 4th edition

ISBN13: 9780205337385

ISBN10: 0205337384

Infants and Children : Prenatal Through Middle Childhood by Laura E. Berk - ISBN 9780205337385
Edition: 4TH 02
Copyright: 2002
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
International: No
Infants and Children : Prenatal Through Middle Childhood by Laura E. Berk - ISBN 9780205337385

ISBN13: 9780205337385

ISBN10: 0205337384

Edition: 4TH 02

Other Editions of Infants and Children : Prenatal Through Middle Childhood

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Author Bio

Berk, Laura E. : Illinois State University

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. History, Theory, and Research Strategies.

The Field of Child Development.
Periods of Development.
Domains of Development.
Basic Issues.
Continuous or Discontinuous Development?
One Course of Development or Many?
Nature or Nurture as More Important?
A Balanced Point of View.
Historical Foundations.
Medieval Times.
The Reformation.
Philosophies of the Enlightenment.
Darwin's Theory of Evolution.
Scientific Beginnings.
Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories.
The Psychoanalytic Perspective.
Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory.
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory.
Recent Theoretical Perspectives.
Information Processing.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory.
Ecological Systems Theory.
New Directions: Development as a Dynamic System.
Comparing Child Development Theories.
Studying the Child.
Common Methods of Gathering Information.
General Research Designs.
Designs for Studying Development.
Ethics in Research on Children.

2. Biological and Environmental Foundations.

Genetic Foundations.
The Genetic Code.
The Sex Cells.
Boy or Girl?
Multiple Births.
Patterns of Genetic Inheritance.
Chromosomal Abnormalities.
Reproductive Choices.
Genetic Counseling.
Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Medicine.
The Alternative of Adoption.
Environmental Contexts for Development.
The Family.
Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning.
The Impact of Poverty.
Beyond the Family: Neighborhoods, Schools, Towns, and Cities.
The Cultural Context.
Understanding the Relationship Between Heredity and Environment.
The Question, "How Much?"
The Question, "How?"

3. Prenatal Development.

Motivations for Parenthood.
Why Have Children?
How Large a Family?
Is There a Best Time During Adulthood to Have a Child?
Prenatal Development.
The Period of the Zygote.
The Period of the Embryo.
The Period of the Fetus.
Prenatal Environmental Influences.
Other Maternal Factors.
The Importance of Prenatal Health Care.
Preparing for Parenthood.
Seeking Information.
The Baby Becomes a Reality.
Models of Effective Parenthood.
Practical Concerns.
The Parental Relationship.

4. Birth and the Newborn Baby.

The Stages of Childbirth.
Stage 1: Dilation and Effacement of the Cervix.
Stage 2: Delivery of the Baby.
Stage 3: Birth of the Placenta.
The Baby's Adaptation to Labor and Delivery.
The Newborn Baby's Appearance.
Assessing the Newborn's Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale.
Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth.
Home Delivery.
Medical Interventions.
Fetal Monitoring.
Labor and Delivery Medication.
Instrument Delivery.
Induced Labor.
Cesarean Delivery.
Birth Complications.
Oxygen Deprivation.
Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants.
Postterm Infants.
Understanding Birth Complications.
Precious Moments after Birth.
The Newborn Baby's Capacities.
Sensory Capacities.
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment.
The Transition to Parenthood.
Changes in the Family System.
Parent Interventions.

5. Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.

Body Growth.
Changes in Body Size.
Changes in Body Proportions.
Changes in Muscle-Fat Makeup.
Skeletal Growth.
Appearance of Teeth.
Brain Development.
Development of Neurons.
Development of the Cerebral Cortex.
Sensitive Periods in Brain Development.
Changing States of Arousal.
Factors Affecting Early Physical Growth.
Emotional Well-Being.
Learning capacities.
Classical Conditioning.
Operant Conditioning.
Habituation and Dishabituation.
Motor Development.
The Sequence of Motor Development.
Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems.
Dynamic Motor Systems in Action.
Cultural Variations in Motor Development.
Fine Motor Development: Voluntary Reaching and Grasping.
Bowel and Bladder Control.
Perceptual Development.
Object Perception.
Intermodal Perception.
Understanding Perceptual Development.

6. Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.

Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory.
Key Piagetian Concepts.
The Sensorimotor Stage.
Recent Research on Sensorimotor Development.
Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage.
Information Processing.
Structure of the Information-Processing System.
Evaluation of Information-Processing Findings.
The Social Context of Early Cognitive Development.
Individual Differences in Early Mental Development.
Infant Intelligence Tests.
Early Environment and Mental Development.
Early Intervention for At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.
Language Development.
Three Theories of Language Development.
Getting Ready to Talk.
First Words.
The Two-Word Utterance Phase.
Comprehension Versus Production.
Individual and Cultural Differences.
Supporting Early Language Development.

7. Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood.

Erikson's Theory of Infant and Toddler Personality.
Basic Trust versus Mistrust.
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt.
Emotional Development.
Development of Basic Emotions.
Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others.
Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions.
Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation.
Temperament and Development.
The Structure of Temperament.
Measuring Temperament.
Stability of Temperament.
Genetic Influences.
Environmental Influences.
Temperament and Child Rearing: The Goodness-of-Fit Model.
Development of Attachment.
Early Theories of Attachment.
Bowlby's Ethological Theory.
Measuring the Security of Attachment.
Stability of Attachment.
Cultural Variations.
Factors that Affect Attachment Security.
Multiple Attachments.
From Attachment to Peer Sociability.
Attachment and Later Development.
Categorizing the Self.
Emergence of Self-Control.

8. Physical Development in Early Childhood.

Body Growth.
Changes in Body Size and Proportions.
Skeletal Growth.
Asynchronies in Physical Growth.
Brain Development.
Synaptic Growth and Pruning.
Other Advances in Brain Development.
Factors Affecting Growth and Health.
Heredity and Hormones.
Emotional Well-Being.
Sleep Habits and Problems.
Infectious Disease.
Childhood Injuries.
Motor Development.
Gross Motor Development.
Fine Motor Development.
Individual Differences in Motor Skills.
Enhancing Early Childhood Motor Development.
Perceptual Development.

9. Cognitive Development in Early Childhood.

Piaget's Theory: The Preoperational Stage.
Advances in Mental Representation.
Make-Believe Play.
Symbol-Real World Relations.
Limitations of Preoperational Thought.
Recent Research on Preoperational Thought.
Evaluation of the Preoperational Stage.
Piaget and Education.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory.
Children's Private Speech.
Social Origins of Early Childhood Cognition.
Vygotsky and Education.
Evaluation of Vygotsky's Theory.
Information Processing.
Problem Solving.
The Young Child's Theory of Mind.
Early Literacy and Mathematical Development.
Individual Differences in Mental Development.
Early Childhood Intelligence Tests.
Home Environment and Mental Development.
Preschool and Day Care.
Educational Television.
Language Development.
Vocabulary Development.
Grammatical Development.
Becoming an Effective Conversationalist.
Supporting Language Learning in Early Childhood.

10. Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood.

Erikson's Theory: Initiative Versus Guilt.
Foundations of Self-Concept.
Understanding Intentions.
Emergence of Self-Esteem.
Emotional Development.
Understanding Emotion.
Emotional Self-Regulation.
Self-Conscious Emotions.
Empathy and Sympathy.
Peer Relations.
Advances in Peer Sociability.
First Friendships.
Social Problem Solving.
Parental and Sibling Influences on Early Peer Relations.
Foundations of Morality.
The Psychoanalytic Perspective.
Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory.
The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective.
The Other Side of Morality: Development of Aggression.
Gender Typing.
Gender-Stereotyped Beliefs and Behaviors.
Genetic Influences on Gender Typing.
Environmental Influences on Gender Typing.
Gender Identity.
Reducing Gender Stereotyping in Young Children.
Child Rearing and Emotional and Social Development.
Styles of Child Rearing.
What Makes Authoritative Child Rearing Effective?
Cultural Variations.
Child-Rearing Styles in Context.
Child Maltreatment.

11. Physical Development in Middle Childhood.

Body Growth.
Changes in Body Size and Proportions.
Worldwide Variations in Body Size.
Secular Trends in Physical Growth.
Skeletal Growth.
Brain Development.
Common Health Problems.
Vision and Hearing.
Unintentional Injuries.
Health Education.
Motor Development and Play.
Gross Motor Development.
Fine Motor Development.
Individual and Group Differences.
Child-Organized Games.
Adult-Organized Youth Sports.
Shadows of Our Evolutionary Past.
Physical Education.

12. Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

Piaget's Theory: The Concrete Operational Stage.
Spatial Reasoning.
Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought.
Recent Research on Concrete Operational Thought.
Evaluation of the Concrete Operational Stage.
Information Processing.
Memory Strategies.
The Knowledge Base and Memory Performance.
Culture, Schooling, and Memory Strategies.
The School-Age Child's Theory of Mind.
Cognitive Self-Regulation.
Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning.
Individual Differences In Mental Development.
Defining and Measuring Intelligence.
Explaining Individual and Group Differences in IQ.
Reducing Cultural Bias in Intelligence Testing.
Language Development.
Learning Two Languages at a Time.
Children's Learning in School.
Class Size.
Educational Philosophies.
Teacher-Student Interaction.
Grouping Practices.
Computers in Classrooms.
Teaching Children with Special Needs.
How Well Educated Are America's Children?

13. Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood.

Erikson's Theory: Industry versus Inferiority.
Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Influences on Self-Concept.
Influences on Self-Esteem.
Emotional Development.
Self-Conscious Emotions.
Emotional Understanding.
Emotional Self-Regulation.
Understanding Others: Perspective Taking.
Moral Development.
Learning about Justice through Sharing.
Moral and Social-Conventional Understanding.
Moral Education.
Peer Relations.
Peer Groups.
Peer Acceptance.
Gender Typing.
Gender Stereotyped Beliefs.
Gender Identity and Behavior.
Cultural Influences on Gender Typing.
Family Influences.
Parent-Child Relationships.
One-Child Families.
Gay and Lesbian Families.
Never-Married Single-Parent Families.
Blended Families.
Maternal Employment and Dual-Earner Families.
Some Common Problems of Development.
Fears and Anxieties.
Child Sexual Abuse.
Fostering Resiliency in Middle Childhood.

Other Editions of Infants and Children : Prenatal Through Middle Childhood

Infants and Children : Prenatal through Middle Children by Laura Berk - ISBN 9780205420636