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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation (Chapters 1-21)

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation (Chapters 1-21) - 6th edition

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation (Chapters 1-21) - 6th edition

ISBN13: 9780618803279

ISBN10: 0618803270

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation (Chapters 1-21) by Steven S. Zumdahl and Donald DeCoste - ISBN 9780618803279
Edition: 6TH 08
Copyright: 2008
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
International: No
Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation (Chapters 1-21) by Steven S. Zumdahl and Donald DeCoste - ISBN 9780618803279

ISBN13: 9780618803279

ISBN10: 0618803270

Edition: 6TH 08

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The Sixth Edition of Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation offers unparalleled teaching and learning resources, with a robust technology package, in addition to the superior problem-solving pedagogy, engaging writing style, and strong emphasis on everyday applications that comprise the hallmarks of this best-selling text. Chemical reactions are covered early, to capture student interest, leaving more abstract material for later chapters.

The authors explain chemical concepts by starting with the basics, using symbols or diagrams, and concluding by encouraging students to test their own comprehension of the solution. This step-by-step approach helps students develop critical problem-solving skills. Also, the accessible explanations and visualizations throughout the text motivate students and engage them in the material by helping them to connect abstract chemical principles to real-life experiences. The pedagogy includes chapter-opening discussions that introduce students to relevant applications and Chemistry in Focus boxes that describe everyday applications of chemistry such as artificial sweeteners, foaming chewing gum, and fake fats. Current applications appear throughout the text with easy-to-understand explanations and analogies.

  • New! Co-author Donald DeCoste brings experience as an author and as an instructor at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign to this new edition.
  • New! HM Assess within Eduspace, Houghton Mifflin's Online Learning Tool, provides a diagnostic assessment tool to test students' understanding of core concepts and track student progress.
  • New! A Multimedia eBook within Eduspace offers a one-stop resource for students to link from textbook content to study resources, including video lessons from Thinkwell, tutorials, flashcards, and ACE quizzes.
  • New! Chapter 10, Energy, combines all the content on energy from Chapter 3 in the Fifth Edition with material on enthalpy, Hess's Law, the difference between the quality and quantity of energy, energy resources in the world, and entropy.
  • Exercises and models such as worked-out examples, self-check exercises, and skill development boxes support the step-by-step problem-solving method.
  • End-of-chapter material covers key terms, a summary of important facts, questions and problems arranged in matched pairs and keyed to chapter sections, additional problems that incorporate material from multiple sections, in-class discussion questions, and "Cumulative Reviews" that tests concepts from preceding chapters.
  • The text builds and refreshes fundamental math skills such as scientific notation, rounding, and rearranging equations. In addition, Math Tips indicated by icons throughout, help students as they perform calculations. Math Review Tutorials on the Online Study Center provide practice for critical math skills.
  • Basic Chemistry, 6/e, in paperback, includes chapters 1-16 and provides basic coverage of chemical concepts and applications through acids and bases
  • Introductory Chemistry, 6/e, available in hardcover or paperback, includes chapters 1-18 and expands coverage with the addition of equilibrium, oxidation-reduction reactions, electrochemistry, radioactivity, and nuclear energy.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Chemistry: An Introduction

1.1 Chemistry: An Introduction
Chemistry in Focus: Dr. Ruth--Cotton Hero
1.2 What Is Chemistry?
1.3 Solving Problems Using a Scientific Approach
Chemistry in Focus: A Mystifying Problem
1.4 The Scientific Method
1.5 Learning Chemistry
Chemistry in Focus: Chemistry: An Important Component of Your Education

2. Measurements and Calculations

2.1 Scientific Notation
2.2 Units
Chemistry in Focus: Critical Units!
2.3 Measurements of Length, Volume, and Mass
Chemistry in Focus: Measurement: Past, Present, and Future
2.4 Uncertainty in Measurement
2.5 Significant Figures
2.6 Problem Solving and Dimensional Analysis
Temperature Conversions: An Approach to Problem Solving
Chemistry in Focus: Tiny Thermometers
2.8 Density

3. Matter

3.1 Matter
3.2 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes
3.3 Elements and Compounds
3.4 Mixtures and Pure Substances
Chemistry in Focus: Concrete--An Ancient Material Made New
3.5 Separation of Mixtures
Cumulative Review for Chapters 1-3

4. Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

4.1 The Elements
Chemistry in Focus: Trace Elements: Small but Crucial
4.2 Symbols for the Elements
4.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory
Chemistry in Focus: No Laughing Matter
Formulas of Compounds
The Structure of the Atom
Chemistry in Focus: Glowing Tubes for Signs, Television Sets, and Computers
Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure
4.7 Isotopes
Chemistry in Focus: Isotope Tales
4.8 Introduction to the Periodic Table
Chemistry in Focus: Putting the Brakes on Arsenic
4.9 Natural States of the Elements
4.10 Ions
4.11 Compounds That Contain Ions

5. Nomenclature

5.1 Naming Compounds
Chemistry in Focus: Sugar of Lead
Naming Binary Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal (Types I and II) 114
Naming Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Types III)
5.4 Naming Binary Compounds: A Review
5.5 Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions
5.6 Naming Acids
5.7 Writing Formulas from Names
Cumulative Review for Chapters 4-5

6. Chemical Reactions: An Introduction

6.1 Evidence for a Chemical Reaction
6.2 Chemical Equations
6.3 Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemistry in Focus: The Beetle That Shoots Straight

7. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

7.1 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur
7.2 Reactions in Which a Solid Forms
7.3 Describing Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
7.4 Reactions That Form Water: Acids and Bases
Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals (Oxidation-Reduction)
7.6 Ways to Classify Reactions
Chemistry in Focus: Do We Age by Oxidation?
Chemistry in Focus: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Launch the Space Shuttle
7.7 Other Ways to Classify Reactions
Cumulative Review for Chapters 6-7

8. Chemical Composition

8.1 Counting by Weighing
Chemistry in Focus: Plastic That Talks and Listens!
8.2 Atomic Masses: Counting Atoms by Weighing
8.3 The Mole
8.4 Molar Mass
8.5 Percent Composition of Compounds
8.6 Formulas of Compounds
8.7 Calculation of Empirical Formulas
8.8 Calculation of Molecular Formulas

9. Chemical Quantities

9.1 Information Given by Chemical Equations
9.2 Mole--Mole Relationships
9.3 Mass Calculations
Chemistry in Focus: Methyl Alcohol: Fuel with a Future?
9.4 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant Percent Yield
Cumulative Review for Chapters 8-9

10. Energy

10.1 The Nature of Energy
10.2 Temperature and Heat
10.3 Exothermic and Endothermic Processes
10.4 Thermodynamics
10.5 Measuring Energy Changes
Chemistry in Focus: Coffee: Hot and Quick(lime)
Chemistry in Focus: Nature Has Not Plants
Chemistry in Focus: Firewalking: Magic or Science?
10.6 Thermochemistry (Enthalpy)
Chemistry in Focus: Methane: An Important Energy Source
10.7 Hess's Law
10.8 Quality Versus Quantity of Energy
10.9 Energy and Our World
Chemistry in Focus: Veggie Gasoline?
10.10 Energy as a Driving Force

11. Modern Atomic Theory

11.1 Rutherford's Atom
11.2 Electromagnetic Radiation
Chemistry in Focus: Light as a Sex Attractant
Chemistry in Focus: Atmospheric Effects 307
Emission of Energy by Atoms
The Energy Levels of Hydrogen
The Bohr Model of the Atom
The Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom
The Hydrogen Orbitals
The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development
Electron Arrangements in the First Eighteen Atoms on the
Periodic Table
Chemistry in Focus: A Magnetic Moment
11.10 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
Chemistry in Focus: The Chemistry of
11.11 Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table
Chemistry in Focus: Fireworks

12. Chemical Bonding

12.1 Types of Chemical Bonds
12.2 Electronegativity
12.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
12.4 Stable Electron Configurations and Charges on Ions
Chemistry in Focus: Composite Cars
12.5 Ionic Bonding and Structures of Ionic Compounds
12.6 Lewis Structures
12.7 Lewis Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds
Chemistry in Focus: Hiding Carbon Dioxide
Chemistry in Focus: Broccoli--Miracle Food?
12.8 Molecular Structure
12.9 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model
Chemistry in Focus: Taste--It's the Structure That Counts
12.10 Molecular Structure: Molecules with Double Bonds
Chemistry in Focus: Minimotor Molecule
Cumulative Review for Chapters 10-12

13. Gases

13.1 Pressure
13.2 Pressure and Volume: Boyle's Law
13.3 Volume and Temperature: Charles's Law
13.4 Volume and Moles: Avogadro's Law
13.5 The Ideal Gas Law
Chemistry in Focus: Snacks Need Chemistry, Too!
13.6 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
13.7 Laws and Models: A Review
13.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
13.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory
13.10 Gas Stoichiometry

14. Liquids and Solids

14.1 Water and Its Phase Changes
14.2 Energy Requirements for the Changes of State
Chemistry in Focus: Whales Need Changes of State
14.3 Intermolecular Forces
14.4 Evaporation and Vapor Pressure
14.5 The Solid State: Types of Solids
14.6 Bonding in Solids
Chemistry in Focus: Metal with a Memory

15. Solutions

15.1 Solubility
Chemistry in Focus: Green Chemistry
15.2 Solution Composition: An Introduction
15.3 Solution Composition: Mass Percent
15.4 Solution Composition: Molarity
15.5 Dilution
15.6 Stoichiometry of Solution Reactions
15.7 Neutralization Reactions
15.8 Solution Composition: Normality
Cumulative Review for Chapters 13-15

16. Acids and Bases

16.1 Acids and Bases
Chemistry in Focus: Gum That Foams
16.2 Acid Strength
Chemistry in Focus: Carbonation--A Cool Trick
Chemistry in Focus: Plants Fight Back
16.3 Water as an Acid and a Base
16.4 The pH Scale
Chemistry in Focus: Airplane Rash
Chemistry in Focus: Garden-Variety Acid-Base Indicators
16.5 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions
16.6 Buffered Solutions

17. Equilibrium

17.1 How Chemical Reactions Occur
17.2 Conditions That Affect Reaction Rates
Chemistry in Focus: Protecting the Ozone
17.3 The Equilibrium Condition
17.4 Chemical Equilibrium: A Dynamic Condition
17.5 The Equilibrium Constant: An Introduction
17.6 Heterogeneous Equilibria
17.7 Le Châtelier's Principle
17.8 Applications Involving the Equilibrium Constant
17.9 Solubility Equilibria
Cumulative Review for Chapters 16-17

18. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry

18.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
18.2 Oxidation States
18.3 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Between Nonmetals
18.4 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions by the Half-Reaction Method
18.5 Electrochemistry: An Introduction
18.6 Batteries
18.7 Corrosion
Chemistry in Focus: Stainless Steel: It's the Pits
18.8 Electrolysis
Chemistry in Focus: Water-Powered Fireplace

19. Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy

19.1 Radioactive Decay
19.2 Nuclear Transformations
19.3 Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of Half-life
19.4 Dating by Radioactivity
Chemistry in Focus: Dating Diamonds
19.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity
19.6 Nuclear Energy
19.7 Nuclear Fission
19.8 Nuclear Reactors
Chemistry in Focus: Future Nuclear Power
19.9 Nuclear Fusion
Chemistry in Focus: Nuclear Waste Disposal

20. Organic Chemistry

20.1 Carbon Bonding
20.2 Alkanes
20.3 Structural Formulas and Isomerism
20.4 Naming Alkanes
20.5 Petroleum
20.6 Reactions of Alkanes
20.7 Alkenes and Alkynes
20.8 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
20.9 Naming Aromatic Compounds
Chemistry in Focus: Termite Mothballing
20.10 Functional Groups
20.11 Alcohols
20.12 Properties and Uses of Alcohols
20.13 Aldehydes and Ketones
20.14 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
20.15 Carboxylic Acids and Esters
20.16 Polymers
Chemistry in Focus: The Chemistry of Music
Chemistry in Focus: Polymers Are Tacky

21. Biochemistry

21.1 Proteins
21.2 Primary Structure of Proteins
21.3 Secondary Structure of Proteins
21.4 Tertiary Structure of Proteins
21.5 Functions of Proteins
21.6 Enzymes
Chemistry in Focus: Urine Farming
21.7 Carbohydrates
Chemistry in Focus: Great Expectations?
The Chemistry of Placebos
21.8 Nucleic Acids
21.9 Lipids

Appendix A

Using Your Calculator
Basic Algebra
Scientific (Exponential) Notation
Graphing Functions
SI Units and Conversion Factors

Solutions to Self-Check Exercises
Answers to Even-Numbered End-of-Chapter Questions and Exercises
Answers to Even-Numbered Cumulative Review Exercises
Photo Credits