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Learning and Teaching : Research-Based Methods

Learning and Teaching : Research-Based Methods - 5th edition

Learning and Teaching : Research-Based Methods - 5th edition

ISBN13: 9780205495214

ISBN10: 0205495214

Learning and Teaching : Research-Based Methods by Donald Kauchak and Paul Eggen - ISBN 9780205495214
Edition: 5TH 07
Copyright: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
International: No
Learning and Teaching : Research-Based Methods by Donald Kauchak and Paul Eggen - ISBN 9780205495214

ISBN13: 9780205495214

ISBN10: 0205495214

Edition: 5TH 07

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This substantially revised Fifth Edition represents one of the most up-to-date, research-based methods texts available today.

This text has two specific goals: to change how teachers think about teaching and to change how they actually teach. Solidly grounded in research, the text describes practical methods in a clear, readable manner with numerous case examples and offers suggestions for applying those methods in today's diverse school environments. Kauchak and Eggen organize their discussion around three important themes in education: diversity, motivation, and technology.


  • Succinct, engaging writing style translates a strong research base into effective classroom practice.
  • ''Applying it in the Schools'' feature offers concrete suggestions for trying chapter concepts in real classroom settings.
  • Introductory cases provide opportunities for learning, discussion, and analysis.
  • Additional vignettes referencing the opening cases reinforce new concepts throughout each chapter.
  • Provides an opportunity for students to apply chapter content through end-of-chapter cases and discussion questions.
  • Describes research assessed by state and national student tests (e.g., PRAXIS).

New To This Edition

  • Includes a new chapter on problem-based learning in the classroom, ''Problem-Based Instruction,'' (Ch. 10).
  • Illustrates how to use the book as a tool for developing professional portfolios (Ch. 1) and provides concrete suggestions at the end of every chapter.
  • Provides standards-based professional development, describing how INTASC and National Board Certification will influence teachers' professional lives (Ch. 1).
  • Explains effective instructional strategies for ESL students (Ch. 2).
  • Describes how to use technology to assist students with disabilities (Ch. 2).
  • Examines National Reform Efforts and their influence on schools (Ch. 2).

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


1. Research and Teaching.

Defining Good Teaching
Research in Teaching: An Historical Perspective
Studies of Teacher Characteristics
The Search for the Right Method
School-Level Research
Teacher Effectiveness Research: Teachers Do Make a Difference
Beyond Effective Teaching: A Focus on Student Learning
Contemporary Views of Teaching and Learning
From Behaviorist to Cognitive Perspectives
Constructivism: Students as Creators of Understanding
Text Themes
The Diversity of Our Learners
Ways of Enhancing Learner Motivation
The Use of Technology for Increasing Learning
Learning to Teach
Knowledge of Subject Matter
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Knowledge of Teaching and Learning
Teaching Strategies
Teacher Decision Making
Reform and No Child Left Behind
Standards-Based Professional Development
Advanced Professional Standards: National Board Certification
Developing a Professional Portfolio
Using This Book to Learn to Teach

2. Student Diversity.

Capitalizing on Cultural Diversity
Multicultural Education: The Challenge
Theories of Minority Achievement
Culturally Responsive Teaching
Language Diversity
English Dialects
English Language Development Programs
Students Placed At Risk: Teaching the Children of Poverty
Students Placed At Risk: Understanding the Problem
Resiliency: Capitalizing on Student Strengths
Teaching Students Placed At Risk
Motivation: The Need for Challenge
Teaching Students with Different Learning Abilities
Intelligence: What Does It Mean?
Multiple Intelligences: The Work of Howard Gardner
Intellectual Diversity: Implications for Teaching
Learning Styles
Field Dependence/Independence
Conceptual Tempo: Impulsive and Reflective Learners
Classroom Learning Styles: The Work of Dunn and Dunn
Learning Styles: Implications for Teachers
Students with Exceptionalities
Working with Students with Exceptionalities: Support for Classroom Teachers
The Exceptional Student Population
Teachers' Roles in Working with Students Having Exceptionalities
Adapting Instruction for Students with Exceptionalities
Technology as a Tool for Inclusion
The Challenge of Assessment in Diverse Classrooms
Provide Practice with Test Taking
Teach Test-Taking Strategies
Use Clear Language in Items
Make Provisions for Nonnative English Speakers

3. Teacher Planning: Research and Reality.

Planning: A Functional Analysis
Variables in Instructional Planning
The Teacher
Learner Development
Learner Motivation
Teaching Context
Materials and Resources
A Cognitive Planning Model
Selecting Topics
Specifying Learning Objectives
Preparing and Organizing Learning Activities
Preparing Assessments
Instructional Alignment
Backward Design
Long-Term, Unit, and Lesson Planning
Long-Term Planning
Unit Planning
Daily Lesson Planning
Integrating the Curriculum: Interdisciplinary and Thematic Units
An Integrated Continuum
Designing and Implementing Integrated Units
Research on Integrated Planning
Research on Teacher Planning
Planning for Diversity: Differentiating Instruction
Varying Time
Varying Learning Objectives
Adapting Instructional Materials
Offering Different Learning Activities
Technology as a Tool for Differentiating Instruction

4. Effective Teaching: The Research Base.

Classroom Climate: A Prerequisite to Learning
Acceptance and Caring: The Human Dimension of Teaching
A Safe and Orderly Learning Environment
A Learning-Focused Classroom
Effective Teaching and the Concept of Time
Allocated Time: Priorities in the Curriculum
Instructional Time: Time from a Teacher's Perspective
Engaged Time: Time from a Learner's Perspective
Academic Learning Time: The Role of Success
A General Instructional Model
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
Teacher Attitudes
Teacher Attitudes, Learner Diversity, and Motivation
Effective Communication
Effective Lesson Beginnings
Developing the Lesson
Ending Lessons Effectively
Assessment and Effective Teaching

5. Increasing Learning through Student Involvement.

Student Involvement: A Key to Learning and Motivation
Learner Involvement: The Need for Clear Learning Objectives
Student Involvement: The Role Of Content Representations
Effective Content Representations: Using Technology
Effective Content Representations: Accommodating Learner Diversity
The Role of Teacher Questioning in Student Learning
Using Questioning to Assess Current Understanding
Increasing Student Motivation
Guiding New Learning
Questions: Their Influence on Student Thinking
Elements of Effective Questioning
Questioning Frequency
Equitable Distribution
Effective Questioning: Increasing Student Motivation
Repetition for Emphasis
Wait Time
Effective Questioning: Involving Students from Diverse Backgrounds
Classroom Questions: Additional Issues
Low- and High-Level Questions
Selecting Students
Choral Responses

6. Creating Productive Learning Environments: Classroom Management.

The Importance Of Classroom Management
Classroom Management: A Definition
Management Goals: Learning and Self-Regulation
Creating Responsibility-Oriented Classrooms
Classroom Management: An Historical Perspective
Planning for Classroom Management
Student Characteristics
The Physical Environment
Classroom Rules: Establishing Standards for Behavior
Procedures: Creating An Efficient Learning Environment
Implementing Management Plans
Implementing Plans: The First 10 Days
Learner Diversity: Challenges To Home--School Communication
The Relationship between Management and Instruction
The Role of Assessment in Classroom Management
Management Interventions
An Intervention Continuum
Dealing with Individual Problems
Serious Management Problems: Violence and Aggression

7. Direct Instruction.

Direct Instruction in the Total Instructional Perspective
Direct Instruction
Direct Instruction: The Research Base
Forms of Content Taught by Direct Instruction
Goals of Direct Instruction
Planning for Direct Instruction
Implementing Direct Instruction Lessons
The Role of Assessment in Direct Instruction
The Motivational Benefits of Effective Feedback

8. Lecture Discussions: Teaching Organized Bodies of Knowledge.

Organized Bodies Of Knowledge: Integrating Facts, Concepts, and Generalizations
Using Lectures to Teach Organized Bodies Of Knowledge
Lecture Discussions: Alternatives to Standard Lectures
The Lecture-Discussion Model: The Research Base
Planning for Lecture Discussions
Implementing Lecture-Discussion Lessons
The Role of Assessment in Lecture-Discussion Lessons

9. Guided Discovery: A Constructivist Approach to Instruction.

Guided Discovery: An Overview
Guided Discovery: Theoretical Foundations
Characteristics of Constructivism
Guided Discovery and Student Motivation
Misconceptions about Guided Discovery
Planning for Guided Discovery Lessons
Identifying Topics
Specifying Learning Objectives
Selecting Examples and Nonexamples
Planning for Social Interaction
Planning for Assessment
Conducting Guided Discovery Lessons
Review and Introduction
The Open-Ended Phase
The Convergent Phase
Ongoing Assessment in Guided Discovery Lessons

10. Learning and Teaching in Groups.

Social Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives
Developmental Theories
Elaboration Theory
Motivation Theory
Components of Effective Group Interaction
Using Groupwork to Facilitate Learning
Organizing and Conducting Groupwork Activities
Working in Pairs: Introducing Groupwork
Working with Larger Groups
Combining Pairs
Groupwork with Higher-Level Tasks
Cooperative Learning
Cooperative Learning: Getting Started
STAD: Student Teams-Achievement Division
Jigsaw II
Group Investigation
Computer-Mediated Communication: Using Technology to Facilitate Cooperative Learning
Using Cooperative Learning to Capitalize on Diversity
Using Discussions to Promote Student Growth
Promoting Cognitive Growth with Discussions: Planning
Promoting Cognitive Growth with Discussions: Implementation
Affective Discussions: Promoting Ethical and Moral Growth
Peer Tutoring: Students as Resources
Research on Peer Tutoring
A Basic Peer Tutoring Model
Assessing Learning in Social Interaction Strategies
Assessing Cognitive Achievement
Assessing Growth in Social Interaction Skills

11. Problem-Based Instruction.

Problem-Based Learning
Problem-Based Instruction: An Overview
Problem-Based Learning: Theoretical Foundations
Project-Based Learning
Essential Components
Implementing Project-Based Instruction in the Classroom
Assessment and Project-Based Learning
Research on Project-Based Learning
Problem Solving
Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems
A Problem-Solving Model
Helping Learners Become Better Problem Solvers
Anchored Instruction: Technology as a Tool to Teach Problem Solving
Inquiry Strategies
Identifying a Question
Forming Hypotheses
Gathering Data
Assessing Hypotheses
Analyzing the Inquiry Process
Critical Thinking
Knowledge of Content
Basic Processes
Metacognitive Knowledge
Attitudes and Dispositions
Teaching Critical Thinking in the Classroom

12. Assessing Learner Understanding.

Classroom Assessment
Formal and Informal Assessment
Functions of an Assessment System
Characteristics of Effective Assessment
Teachers' Assessment Patterns
Using Assessment to Promote Learning
Preparing Students
Administering Tests
Examining Results
Research on Classroom Testing: Implications for Teachers
Alternative Assessment
Performance Assessment
Portfolio Assessment
Designing an Assessment System
Grades and Grading
Using Technology in Assessment
Planning and Constructing Tests
Analyzing Test Data
Maintaining Student Records

Author Index.
Subject Index.