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Public Speaking

Public Speaking - 99 edition

Public Speaking - 99 edition

ISBN13: 9780312137229

ISBN10: 0312137222

Public Speaking by Dan O
Cover type: Paperback
Edition: 99
Copyright: 1999
Publisher: Bedford Books
International: No
Public Speaking by Dan O

ISBN13: 9780312137229

ISBN10: 0312137222

Cover type: Paperback
Edition: 99

List price: $98.75

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An excellent balance of contemporary and historical speeches -- from students, business leaders, politicians, and well-known figures such as Mario Cuomo, Marian Wright Edelman, and Henry Cisneros -- gives students dynamic examples to emulate.

A focus on critical thinking skills informs every applicable topic in the text, including Critical Checkpoints throughout each chapter to help students think critically about material they have just read and consider how they might apply it to the speech-making process.

Making a Difference profiles throughout highlight inspiring individuals who have harnessed the power of public speaking to make a difference in the lives of others. Profiles include Wendy Kopp, founder of Teach for America; Pedro Zamora, AIDS activist; and Craig Kielburger, a 12-year old who started Free the Children, a political lobbying group that seeks to abolish child labor.

Cultural diversity is emphasized throughout the text and in Public Speaking in Cultural Perspective boxes that help students think about cultural issues from different perspectives. Examples include "Confidence and Culture -- When English Isn't Your First Language" and "African American Oratory -- The Call-Response."

Comprehensive coverage of technology woven throughout the text includes Focus on Technology boxes that highlight potential benefits and pitfalls of using certain technologies, helping students become smart and critical users of these powerful new tools. Topics covered include finding topics online, using word processors, and videotaping effectively.

Real world applicability of public speaking skills is emphasized through speech excerpts from business contexts and Real World Perspective boxes -- interviews with business leaders that show students the importance of public speaking in the world of business and how these skills will help them in their personal lives and careers.

Public speaking anxiety is covered in a full chapter (chapter 2), helping students overcome their fear of public speaking by providing them with the skills to deliver their first speech with confidence.

In-depth discussion of ethical concerns throughout the text, includes a chapter (chapter 4) devoted entirely to framing ethical issues in public speaking, and Focus on Ethics boxes throughout the text that highlight particular ethical issues. Topics range from hate speeches, to plagiarism, to ethics and emotions.

Dan O'Hair is Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication at the University of Oklahoma. He is co-author of six communication texts including Competent Communication, second edition, (St. Martin's Press, 1997). He has published more than forty research articles and chapters in dozens of communication, psychology, and health journals and books.

Robert A.Stewart is an Associate Dean in the Arts and Sciences and Professor of Communication Studies at Texas Tech University. Earlier at Texas Tech he directed the basic courses and supervised Graduate Teaching Assistants in Public Speaking and Business and Professional Communication, and later was Chairman of Communication Studies. He is a member of the university's honorary Teaching Academy. He has published nearly 30 articles and book chapters on subjects of communication journals and as a guest reviewer for journals in sociology and social psychology. He is a frequent presenter at the National Communication Association and the Texas Speech Communication Association, and often contributes to programs at regional conferences.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

The structure of each chapter's Study Guide is identical to what is shown in Chapter 1. For the sake of brevity, the recurring structure is not repeated in this table of contents.

Part I. Speakers, Listeners, and Messages

1. Challenges And Choices In Public Speaking

Why Public Speaking?
An Enduring Legacy
Reasons for Public Speech
Public Speaking As a Form of Communication
Benefits of Public Speaking
Becoming a More Knowledgeable Person
Honing Critical Thinking and Listening Skills
Enhancing Your Career as a Student
Accomplishing Professional and Personal Goals
Exploring and Sharing Values
Public Speaking and the Communication Process
The Elements of Communication
Special Speaker Considerations: Self, Audience, Context, Goals, and Outcome
Public Speech and Pluralistic Voices
Challenges and Choices in Public Speaking
Challenges and Choices of Speech in Democracy
Making a Difference
Study Guide
Summary Questions
Issues for Discussion
Key Terms
INTERVIEW: Speaking in Public: A Real World Perspective
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Kristina Wong, Voice of Democracy Scholarship Winner

2. Getting Started With Confidence

The Roots of Public Speaking
Lack of Experience
Feeling Different
Being the Center of Attention
Public Speaking Anxiety: Forms and Consequences
Communication Apprehension
Public Speaking Anxiety during the Speechmaking Process
The Consequences of Public Speaking Anxiety
Strategies for Getting Started with Confidence
Prepare and Practice
Modify Thoughts and Attitudes
Visualize Success
Use Relaxation Techniques
Depersonalize the Speech Evaluation
Seek Pleasure in the Occasion
Giving It a Try: Doing a First Speech in Class
Select a Topic
Analyze Your Audience
State the Speech Purpose
Develop the Main Points
Gather Supporting Materials
Outline the Speech
Practice Delivering the Speech
Study Guide
PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Confidence and Culture-When English Isn't Your First Language (Or Even If It Is)
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Charlton McIlwain, Director of Communication, Laura Boyd Gubernatorial Campaign
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Audiocassettes and Confidence

3. Listeners And Speakers

Listening: A Complex Human Behavior
Listeners and Speakers: A Dynamic Relationship
Listening is Selective
Active Listening: Overcoming Obstacles
Barriers to Active Listening
Becoming an Active Listener
Active Listening and Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking
Critical Listening: The Though/Speech Differential
Evaluating Speeches
Adjusting to the Speaker's Style
Be Honest and Fair in Your Evaluating
Be Compassionate in Your Criticizing
Study Guide
FOCUS ON ETHICS: The Responsibility of Listening
INTERVIEW: Listening: A Real World Perspective

4. Ethical Public Speaking

Ethical Speaking And Responsibility
Free Speech and Responsibility
The Roots of Ethical Speaking
Ethics, Ethos, and Speaker Credibility
Values: The Foundation Of Ethical Speaking
Value Conflicts and Ethical Dilemmas
Values and the Public Speaker
Ground Rules For Ethical Speaking
Direct Quotations
Paraphrased Information
Facts and Statistics
Assessing Ethical Factors after Delivering a Speech
Study Guide
INTERVIEW: Ethics: A Real World Perspective
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Crediting Online Sources

Part II. Selecting the Message

5. Audience Analysis

Audience Demographics: Building A Profile
Ethnic or Cultural Background
Socioeconomic Status
Political Affiliation
Audience Psychology
Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values
Personality Traits
Methods Of Audience Analysis
The Interview
The Survey
Written Sources
Other Speakers as Resources
Audience Analysis And The Speech Context
Seating Capacity and Arrangement
Lighting and Sound
Study Guide
PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Audience Analysis as Relationship Development
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Wendy Kopp, President and Founder, Teach For America
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Mission Statements and More-Searching the Net
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Finding Common Ground

6. Selecting A Topic And Purpose

What Do I Speak About?
When Topics Are Assigned
When Topics Are Self-Selected
The General Speech Purpose
Speaking to Inform
Speaking to Persuade
The Special Occasion Speech
Selecting A Topic
Personal Interests: Let Passion Be Your Guide
Audience Concerns and Interests
Current Events and Controversial Issues
Local Issues
Little-Known or Unusual Information
Refining The Topic And Purpose
Narrowing the Topic
Forming a Specific Speech Purpose
From Topic And Purpose To Thesis
Making a Claim
Making it Relevant
Study Guide
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Craig Kielburger, Founder, Free the Children
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Finding Topics Online
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Ethical Considerations in Selecting a Topic and Purpose

7. Developing Supporting Material

Types Of Supporting Material
Facts and Statistics
Locating Supporting Materials
Getting Started
Primary Research: Interviews and Surveys
Secondary Resources: Print, Electronically Stored, and Online Sources
Organizing And Documenting Source Material
Critically Evaluating Sources
Developing Conclusions
Beware of Errors in Data Interpretation
Study Guide
INTERVIEW: Supporting the Speech: A Real World Perspective
PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Multicultural Reference Works-Filling the Gap
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Managing Online Resources
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Ethical Considerations in Research

Part III. Preparing the Message

8. Organizing And Outlining The Speech

Main Points, Supporting Points, And Transitions
Main Points: Making the Claim
Supporting Points: Supplying the Evidence
Transitions: Giving Direction
Principles of Organizing Main and Supporting Points
Types Of Organizational Arrangements
Topical Arrangements
Chronological Arrangements
Spatial or Geographical Arrangements
Causal (Cause-Effect) Arrangements
Problem-Solution Arrangements
Outlining Speech Material
Sentence Outlines
Phrase Outlines
Keyword Outlines
Benefits and Drawbacks of Each Outline Format
Outline Formats and Speech Delivery
Sample Speech Outlines
Study Guide
PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Arrangement Formats and Audience Diversity
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Software for Outlining Speeches

9. Developing Introductions And Conclusions

The Introduction: Enlisting The Audience
Gaining Attention: The First Step
Introducing the Purpose and Topic
Previewing Your Main Points
Motivating the Audience to Accept Your Goals
The Conclusion: Making It Motivating and Memorable
Alerting the Audience
Summarizing the Main Points and Goals
Reiterating the Topic and Purpose
Leaving the Audience with Something to Think About
Study Guide
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Plagiarism Is Plagiarism, No Matter Where It Occurs
INTERVIEW: Introductions and Conclusions-A Real World Perspective
PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Critically Evaluating Introductions and Conclusions

10. Using Language: Styling The Speech

Writing For The Ear
Using Language To Share Meaning
Culturally Sensitive and Unbiased Language
Vivid Imagery
Using Language To Build Credibility
Confidence and Conviction
Using Language To Create A Lasting Impression
Study Guide
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Is the Use of Vivid Language Ever a Bad Idea?
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Using the Word Processor to Help Craft a Speech

Part IV. Delivering the Message

11. Delivering The Speech

Qualities Of Effective Delivery
Effective Delivery Is Natural
Effective Delivery Is Enthusiastic
Effective Delivery Is Confident
Effective Delivery Is Direct
The Functions Of Nonverbal Communication in Delivery
Nonverbal Behavior Clarifies Verbal Messages
Nonverbal Behavior Facilitates Feedback
Nonverbal Behavior Helps Establish a Relationship Between Speaker and Audience
Nonverbal Behavior Helps Establish Speaker Credibility
The Voice In Delivery
Vocal Variety
Pronunciation and Articulation
Face, Eyes, And Body In Delivery
Facial and Eye Behavior
Gestures and Body Movement
Dress and Objects
Methods Of Delivery
Speaking from Manuscript
Speaking from Memory
Speaking Impromptu
Speaking Extemporaneously
Using a Delivery Outline
Practicing The Delivery
Focus on the Message
Practice Under Realistic Conditions
Does Delivery Really Make a Difference?
Study Guide
FOCUS ON ETHICS: A Tool for Good and Evil
PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: African American Oratory-The Call-Response
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Delivery on Camera
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Videotaping the Delivery
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Beverly DeSmith, Volunteer and Television Host, Simsbury Community Television (SCTV)

12. Preparing And Using Presentation Aids

Understanding The Role Of Presentation Aids
Presentation Aids Help Listeners Process and Retain Information
Presentation Aids Promote Interest and Motivation
Presentation Aids Save Time
Presentation Aids Inform and Persuade
Presentation Aids Reduce Speaker Anxiety
Presentation Aids Create a Professional Image
Types Of Presentation Aids
Audio Aids
Options For Displaying The Aid
Flip Charts
Overhead Transparencies
Computer Projection and Display Technology
Preparing Presentation Aids
Simplicity and Continuity
Integrating Text and Graphics
Proofreading for Errors and Design Flaws
Using Presentation Aids in Your Speech
Timing and Sequence
Practicing with the Presentation Aid
Anticipate the Unexpected
Don't Overdo It
Study Guide
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Credibility and Presentation Aids
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Presentation Software

Part V. Forms of Speeches

13. Informative Speeches

Informative Speaking Goals And Strategies
Building Understanding and Awareness
Audience Analysis
Strategies for Presenting Information
Types Of Informative Speeches
Speeches About Objects
Speeches About People
Speeches About Events
Speeches About Processes
Speeches About Concepts
Speeches About Issues
Organizing The Informative Speech
Chronological and Spatial Patterns
Topical Pattern
Cause-Effect Pattern
Problem-Solution Pattern
Tips For Effective Informative Speeches
Strive for Balance: Neither Too Much nor Too Little
Define Your Terms
Emphasize the Topic's Relevance to Your Audience
Reinforce Your Message through Repetition
Relate Old Ideas to New Ones
Present New and Interesting Information
Strive for Clarity
Use Visualization
Incorporate Presentation Aids
Study Guide
INTERVIEW: Informative Speeches: A Real World Perspective
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Responsibility, Opportunity, and the Right to Inform
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Pedro Zamora, AIDS Activist
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Surfing, Swimming, or Drowning on the Internet

14. The Persuasive Speech

What Is A Persuasive Speech?
Persuasive versus Informative Speaking
Persuasive Purposes
The Process of Persuasion
Classical Persuasive Appeals
Logos: Appeals to Audience Reason
Pathos: Appeals to Audience Emotion
Ethos: Appeals to Speaker Character
Contemporary Persuasive Appeals
Motivating the Audience: Appeals to Audience Needs
Targeting Behavior: Appeals to Audience Attitudes and Beliefs
Making the Message Relevant: Appeals to Audience Understanding
Establishing Credibility: Appeals to the Audience Relationship with the Speaker
A Plan For Organizing Persuasive Speeches
Step 1: Attention
Step 2: Need
Step 3: Satisfaction
Step 4: Visualization
Step 5: Action
Study Guide
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Using Emotions Ethically
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: Reverend Tom Grey, Executive Director, national Coalition against Legalized Gambling (NCALG)

15. Developing Arguments For The Persuasive Speech

What Is An Argument?
Stating a Claim
Providing Evidence
Giving Warrants
Variations In Argument: Types Of Claims, Evidence, and Warrants
Types of Claims
Types of Evidence
Types of Warrants
Refining The Argument
Fallacies In Reasoning: The Pitfalls Of Arguing
Begging the Question
Ad Hominem Argument
Sample Persuasive Speech: Craig Kielburger Testifying before the U.S. Congress
Study Guide
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Technology and Argument
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Presenting Ethical Arguments

16. Small Group, Business, and Professional Presentations

Communicating In Groups
Becoming an Effective Group Participant
Leading a Group
Making Decisions In Groups
Identifying the Problem
Conducting Research and Analysis
Establishing Guidelines and Criteria
Generating Solutions
Selecting the Best Solution
Evaluating the Chosen Solution
Making Presentations In Groups
Assigning Tasks
The Moderator's Role
Ensuring Consistency of Delivery
Business And Professional Presentations
Public versus Presentational Speaking
Types of Presentations
Delivering The Presentation
Informational Delivery
Instructional Delivery
Relational Delivery
Transformational Delivery
Study Guide
FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY: Computer Technology and Group Communication
FOCUS ON ETHICS: Promoting Ethical Communication in the Workplace

17. Special Occasion Speeches

Functions Of Special Occasion Speeches
Social Agenda Setting
Types Of Special Occasion Speeches
Speeches of Introduction
Speeches of Acceptance
Speeches of Presentation
Roasts and Toasts
Eulogies and Other Tributes
After-Dinner Speeches
Speeches of Inspiration
Delivering The Special Occasion Speech
Sample Eulogy: The 9th Earl Spencer at the Funeral of Princess Diana on September 6, 1997
Study Guide
INTERVIEW: Special Occasion Speeches: A Real World Perspective
FOCUS ON ETHICS: A Roast that Smoldered and Burned

Appendix: Speeches For Analysis
Kristina Wong, Answering America's Call
Wendy Kopp, Commencement at Drew University
Tom Grey, Testimony Against Legalized Gambling before the U.S. House Judiciary Committee
Renzi Stone, Live Longer and Healthier: Stop Eating Meat!
Amber Mixon, Making Dreams Reality
William Jefferson Clinton, Address at the Time Magazine 75th Anniversary Celebration
Nancy S. Dye, Late Night Reflections of a College President: A Virtual University