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Scopes Trial: A Brief History With Documents

Scopes Trial: A Brief History With Documents - 02 edition

Scopes Trial: A Brief History With Documents - 02 edition

ISBN13: 9780312249199

ISBN10: 0312249195

Scopes Trial: A Brief History With Documents by Jeffrey P. Moran - ISBN 9780312249199
Cover type: Paperback
Edition: 02
Copyright: 2002
Publisher: Bedford Books
Published:
International: No
Scopes Trial: A Brief History With Documents by Jeffrey P. Moran - ISBN 9780312249199

ISBN13: 9780312249199

ISBN10: 0312249195

Cover type: Paperback
Edition: 02
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Summary

The Scopes trial shocked America. Tennessee schoolteacher John Scopes brought the question of teaching evolution in schools to every dinner table, and it remains an essential topic in any course on American History, the History of Education, and Religious History. This volume's lively interpretative introduction provides an analysis of the trial and its impact on the moral fiber of the country and the educational system, and examines the race and gender issues that shook out of the debate. The editor has excerpted the crucial exchanges from the trial transcript itself, and includes these along with reactions to the trial, taken from newspaper reports, letters, and magazine articles. Telling political cartoons and evocative photographs add a colorful dimension to this collection, while a chronology of events, questions for consideration, and a bibliography provide strong pedagogical support.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface

PART ONE. INTRODUCTION: IF MONKEYS COULD SPEAK

Evolution before the 1920s
William Jennings Bryan
Bryan and the Antievolution Argument
Antievolution becomes a Movement
The Fight for the Public Schools
Making a Test Case
The Trial Begins
Separation of Church and State
Expertise and Interpretation
Women in the Scopes Trial
The Role of the Schools
Race and Evolution
Bryan Takes the Stand
Aftermath
Conclusion: Geography and the "Acids of Modernity"

PART TWO. DOCUMENTS

Friday, 10 July 1925: First Day's Proceedings
Partial Text of the Butler Law
Clarence Darrow Examines a Potential Juror, J.R. McKenzie of Rhea County
"Jury Pious, Dayton Hot" Writes Baltimore Sun Reporter Henry M. Hyde

Monday 13 July 1925: Second Day's Proceedings
Court Opened with a Prayer by Reverend Moffett of Rhea County
Indictment Read
Defense Proposes Law Is Unconstitutional
Prosecution Argues Butler Bill Consistent with Religious Freedom
Attorney General Tom Stewart Replies to the Motion to Quash the Indictment
Butler Law Not an Invasion of Religious Liberty
Prosecution Discusses Freedom of Speech
Darrow's Major Speech in Defense of Religious Liberty
Darrow: Legislature Must Honor the Constitution
Statute Too Vague to be Applied
Bible a Book of Faith, Not Science
Bible Must be Interpreted
Human Diversity Demands Religious Liberty
Butler Law a Criminal Law, Not a Law for Schools
Fires Have Kindled Bigotry in America
H.L. Mencken Reacts to Darrow's Speech

Tuesday, 14 July 1925: Third Day's Proceedings
Defense Objects to Prayers; Prosecution Defends Practice
Stewart Questions the Defense's Religion
Hays Presents Liberal Clergy's Petition to the Court
Nashville Editorialist Defends Practice of Courtroom Prayer

Wednesday, 15 July 15, 1925: Fourth Day's Proceedings
Darrow Proud of Agnosticism
Raulston Rules on Motion to Quash Indictment
"Cherish Literature and Science" Not Legally Binding
Act Does Not Interfere with Worship
Butler Law Does Not Single Out Teachers
Defense Pleads Not Guilty; Cases Outlined
Science and Theology Separate
Examination of Howard Morgan, One of Scopes's Students
Cross-Examination of Morgan by Clarence Darrow
Harper's Monthly Reporter W. O. McGeehan Says Trial Shows Wisdom of Youth

Thursday, 16 July 1925: Fifth Day's Proceedings
Darrow Pleads for Expert Testimony
State Moves to Exclude Evidence
William Jennings Bryan, Jr. Pleads against Expert Testimony
Hays is Astounded by Objections to Expert Testimony
Hays Says Prosecution Wants One Side Only
Entitled to Show What Evolution Is
Evidence Required
Hicks Argues Wording of Butler Law Makes Experts Unnecessary
Second Clause Explains the First
Hicks Claims This Is Court of Law, Not Schoolhouse
Experts Must Qualify as Both Scientists and Bible Authorities
McKenzie Argues Law Must Be Interpreted in Plain Language
Whether "Descent from Lower Order" is Supplementary or Explanatory
Evolutionists Would Have Man Descended from Soft Dish Rag
William Jennings Bryan's First Speech
Duel to the Death?
Outside Experts Threaten Tennessee Democracy
Can Minority Compel Majority to Disallow Bible?
Bryan Mocks Evolutionary Textbook
Bryan Shows a "Tree of Life" to Court
Bryan Denies Humans Belong with Mammals
Bryan Maintains Evolution Not Explanatory
Evolution Not Reconcilable with Bible
Theory of Evolution Contradicts Biblical Miracles
Christians Understand Bible Better than Experts
No Court Can Drive Out Word of God
Dudley Field Malone Replies to Bryan
Bible Does Not Account for Progress in Knowledge
Theological and Scientific Minds Differ
Defense Theory of the Case Depends on Experts
Bible Not a Book of Science
Expert on Evolution and Bible Needed
Exposure to Science Will Not Harm Youth
Truth Is Imperishable and Eternal
Attorney General Stewart Replies to Malone; Denies Need for Experts
Must Heed Legislature's Intent
Science Should Not Intrude on Religion
Stewart on the Side of Religion
Stewart Laments Darrow's Agnosticism
Defense Threatens Nation's Christian Foundation
Not Entitled to a Chance
Nation Reporter Joseph Wood Krutch Finds Fairness on the Defense's Side

Friday, 17 July 1925: Sixth Day's Proceedings
Raulston Outlines Dispute over Expert Testimony
Raulston Rejects Expert Testimony
Darrow Insults Judge Raulston
The New Republic Rejects Appeal to Courts over Legislature

Monday, 20 July 1925: Seventh Day's Proceedings
The Governor's Message
Darrow Objects to "Read Your Bible" Banner
Defense Calls Bryan to the Stand
Examination of William Jennings Bryan by Clarence Darrow
Did Jonah Swallow the Whale?
Could Joshua Command the Sun to Stand Still?
Darrow Questions Bryan about the Flood
The Noachian Flood and the Age of Civilization
Darrow Questions Bryan on Ancient History
Bryan and Darrow Dispute over Scientists
Bryan Agrees Earth Is Much Older
Darrow Questions Bryan on Genesis
The New York Times Reports on Day Seven

Tuesday, 21 July 1925: Eighth Day's Proceedings
Court Strikes Bryan's Testimony
Darrow Explains Instruction for Jury to Find Scopes Guilty
Scopes Is Sentenced
Farewell Remarks by Counsel
Judge Raulston's Farewell Oration

H.L. Mencken Evaluates the Scopes Trial
Mencken: "Battle Now Over; Genesis Triumphant and Ready for New Jousts"

Race and the Scopes Trial
Chicago Defender, "If Monkeys Could Speak"
Dayton Is America, Argues W.E.B. Dubois
African Methodist Episcopal Church Minister Stands with Bryan
Racial Hierarchy Proves Evolution
Race and Eugenics in George W. Hunter, A Civic Biology
Racial Hierarchy in A Civic Biology
Eugenics in A Civic Biology

Educational Freedom in the Scopes Trial
William Jennings Bryan Asks Who Shall Control Our Schools
ACLU Explains and Deplores Postwar Threats to Academic Freedom
American Federation of Teachers Expresses Concern over "Intolerance"
University Faculty Define Academic Freedom
Tennessee Can Dictate Curriculum, Not Answers

The Scopes Trial and the "New Woman"
A Catholic Priest Argues Women Are Surrendering Their Moral Duty
A "Flapper" Responds to Attacks on Youth
A Tennessee Woman Calls for Battle against Evolutionist Outsiders
A Tennessee Mother Writes to Support the Butler Bill

A Foreign View of the Scopes Trial
Scopes Shows America Follows "Law of the Jungle"

PART THREE. A COLLECTION OF CARTOONS

APPENDICES
A Scopes Trial Chronology
Questions for Consideration
Selected Bibliography
Index