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Social Statistics for a Diverse Society - With CD

Social Statistics for a Diverse Society - With CD - 3rd edition

Social Statistics for a Diverse Society - With CD - 3rd edition

ISBN13: 9780761987437

ISBN10: 0761987436

Social Statistics for a Diverse Society - With CD by Chava Frankfort-Nachmias and Anna Leon-Guerrero - ISBN 9780761987437
Edition: 3RD 02
Copyright: 2002
Publisher: Pine Forge Press
International: No
Social Statistics for a Diverse Society - With CD by Chava Frankfort-Nachmias and Anna Leon-Guerrero - ISBN 9780761987437

ISBN13: 9780761987437

ISBN10: 0761987436

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  • A close link between the practice of statistics, important social issues, and real-world examples this shows students that in the social sciences there is a constant interplay between social concerns and the methods of inquiry and investigation.
  • Informal writing style Coupled with the use of real-world example, the conversational writing style results in a book that is more accessible and engaging for students.
  • A focus on race, class and gender pervades the book - this emphasis on diversity sets the book apart from others in the field and mirrors the major emphasis in the social sciences today.
  • Reading the Research Literature sections in most chapters help student read and interpret statistical information in professional and scholarly publications.
  • Integration and Review Chapters- Chs. 9 and 15 review the two halves of the book for descriptive and inferential statistics, respectively. These two chapters help students understand the interconnectedness of concepts presented in Chs. 2-8 and 10 14, while testing their abilities to cumulatively apply their knowledge.
  • Boxes and Learning Checks in chapters Throughout the book are found Boxes that contain information on statistics in practice and insightful tips on using various techniques. The Learning Checks allow students to test their understanding of concepts just presented.
  • Emphasis on Computing SPSS for Windows is used throughout the book in conjunction with General Social Survey data to introduce students to one of the most commonly used analytical software packages in the field. At the end of each chapter is a demonstration of a related SPSS procedure, along with a set of exercises.

New to This Edition:

  • Clearer and more concise presentation of topics.
  • Extensive revision to Chapter 13, Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples.
  • Two supplemental electronic chapters for multiple regression and analysis of multivariates.
  • New student CD bundled with each copy of text. The CD includes the two e-chapters, 3 GSS data sets, a National Geographic data set with accompanying exercises, a SPSS demo, and more.
  • SPSS version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0.
  • Instructor's Manual on CD-ROM with significant teaching support materials: testbank, PowerPoint slides, and more.
  • This groundbreaking textbook uses real-world research examples and data to provide a revealing introduction to social science statistics. The Third Edition of this widely adopted text effectively links social issues and sociological concepts with statistical techniques. Realizing that students may lack a substantial math background, or suffer from "math anxiety," the material in this book is presented using straightforward prose that emphasizes intuition, logic, and common sense rather than rote memorization. Throughout the text instructors are provided with resources to support effective teaching: illustrations showing how statistical concepts are used to interpret social issues, guides for reading and interpreting the research literature, SPSS demonstrations, and a rich variety of exercises. The user-friendly, informal style of this innovative text has been widely applauded by students and instructors alike.

Highlights of the Third Edition :

  • A number of important changes have been made to this edition in response to the valuable comments received from the many instructors adopting the Second Edition and from other interested instructors and students.
  • Clearer and More Concise Presentation of Topics
  • The discussion of statistical procedures and concepts has been carefully edited, reducing redundancy of and clarifying examples, while at the same time preserving the book's easily understood style.
  • Real-World Examples and Exercises
  • A hallmark of the first two editions was the extensive use of real data from a variety of sources for chapter illustrations and exercises. Throughout the Third Edition, the majority of exercises and examples have been updated based on General Social Survey or U.S. Census data.

Revisions to Chapter 13: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples

The detailed discussion of the principles of hypothesis testing, including the Z test for one sample, has been reintroduced from the First Edition. In addition, we have added a discussion of the t statistic in the context of one-sample tests. One sample tests are introduced here as a pedagogical tool to clarify statistical inference before moving to the more complicated concept of the two-sample test. For simplification, the discussion of unequal variances has been boxed and shortened considerably.

Supplemental Electronic Materials

Rather than adding additional chapters and printed pages to the text, a CD-ROM with supplemental materials has been included in this new edition. These supplemental materials provide increased flexibility for instructors and students and include: two additional electronic chapters three GSS data sets a National Geographic data set with exercises a data dictionary for the SPSS variables and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. The first chapter includes an expanded version of Chapter 8¾ Bivariate Regression and Correlation with new sections on inference in regression, analysis of variance, and a brief overview of multiple regression techniques. This chapter can be used in conjunction with the printed Chapter 8 or used alone. The second chapter is a stand-alone chapter on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The chapter begins with a detailed computational example, highlights two SPSS ANOVA applications, and reviews two examples from the research literature. As in the text chapters, each electronic chapter concludes with an SPSS demonstration, SPSS exercises, and end of chapter exercises (with selected answers).

SPSS Version 11.0

  • The Third Edition of this text includes examples and screen shots utilizing SPSS Version 11.0. Packaged with this text, on an optional basis, is SPSS Student Version 11.0. The SPSS CD-ROM contains: SPSS Student Version material plus
  • 3 GSS data sets
  • an NG data set with exercises
  • a data dictionary for the SPSS variables
  • and an SPSS demonstration How to Use a Statistical Package. Demonstrations and exercises have been updated, using version 11.0 format. To order the book packaged with the Student Version of SPSS 11.0, use order code: ISBN: 0-7619-8777-0.

General Social Survey 1998

As a companion to the Third Edition's SPSS demonstrations and exercises, three data sets have been created. Those using the Student Version of SPSS 11.0 will work with two separate GSS files: GSS Module A features gender and family issues, and GSS Module B highlights race and government policy issues. The GSS96PFP.SAV contains an expanded selection of variables and cases from the 1998 General Social Survey. SPSS exercises at the end of each chapter utilize certain variables from all data modules. There is ample opportunity for instructors to develop their own SPSS exercises using this data.

Supplemental Tools on Important Topics

The Third Edition's discussion of inferential statistics remains focused on Z, t and chi-square. The Pine Forge Press Series in Research Methods and Statistics, of which this book is a part, includes additional supplementary volumes by Paul Allison on regression and by Robert Leik on analysis of variance. These supplements were written to closely coordinate with this text and are available from Pine Forge Press.

Author Bio

Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava : University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Leon-Guerrero, Anna : Pacific Lutheran University

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. The What and the Why of Statistics

The Research Process
Asking Research Questions
The Role of Theory
Formulating the Hyupotheses
Collecting Data
Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses
Looking at Social Differences

2. Organization of Information: Frequency Distributions

Frequency Distributions
Proportions and Percentages
Percentage Distributions
Statistics in Practice:
Labor Force Participation of Native Americans
The Construction of Frequency Distributions
Cumulative Distributions
Statistics in Practice: Marriage and Divorce Rates over Time
Reading the Research Literature: Statistical Tables

3. Graphic Presentation

The Pie Chart: The Race and Ethnicity of the Eldersly
The Bar Graph: The Living Arrangements and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly
The Statistical Map: the Geographic Distribution of the Elderly
The Histogram
Statistics in Practice: The "Graying" of America
The Frequency Polygon
Time Series Charts
Distortions in Graphs
Statistics in Practice: Diversity at a Glance

4. Measures of Central Tendency

The Mode
The Median
The Mean
The Shape of the Distribution: The Experience of Traumatic Events
Consideration for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency

5. Measures of Variability

The Importance of Measuring Variability
The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV)
The Range
The Interquartile Range: Increases in Elderly Populations
The Box Plot
The Variance and the Standard Deviation: Changes in the Nursing Home Population
Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation
Reading the Research Literature: Gender Differences in Caregiving

6. Relationships Between Two Variables: Cross-Tabulation

Independent and Dependent Variables
How to Construct a Bivariate Table:
Race and Home Ownership
How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table
How to Deal with Ambiguous Relationships
Between Variables
Reading the Research Literature: Medicaid Use Among the Elderly
The Properties of a Bivariate Relationship
Statistics in Practice: Family Support for the Transition from High School

7. Measures of Association for Nominal and Ordinal Variables

Proportional Reduction of Error and Degree of Association
Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables
Gamma: An Ordinal Measure of Association
Calculating Gamma
Using Ordinal Measures with Dichotomous Variables
Reading the Research Literature: Worldview and Abortion Beliefs

8. Bivariaate Regression and Correlation

The Scatter Diagram
Linear Relations and Prediction Rules
Statistics in Practice: GNP and Willingness to Volunteer Time for Environmental Protection
Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions
Statistics in Practice: Teen Pregnancy and Inequality
Statistics in Practice: The Marriage Penalty in Earnings

9. Organization of Information and Measurement of Relationships: A Review of Descriptive Data Analysis

Descriptive Data Analysis for Nominal Variables
Statistics in Practice: Gender and Local Political Party Activism
Descriptive Data Analysis for Ordinal Variables
Descriptive Data Analysis for Interval-Ratio Variables
Statistics in Practice: Education and Income

10. The Normal Distribution

Properties of the Normal Distribution
Standard (Z) Scores
The Standard Normal Distribution
The Standard Normal Table
The Structure of the Standard Normal Table
Transforming Z Scores into Proportions (or Percentages)

11. Sampling and Sampling Distribution

Aims of Sampling
Some Basic Principles of Probability
Probability Sampling
The Concept of the Sampling Distribution
The Sampling Distribution of the Mean
The Central Limit Theorem

12. Estimation

Estimation Defined
Procedures for Estimating Confidence Intervals for Means
Statistics in Practice Hispanic Migration and Earnings
Confidence Intervals for Proportions
Statistics in Practice: Should Affirmative Action Programs Be Increased?

13. Testing Hypotheses

Part I: The Basics
Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing
Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses
Determining What Is Sufficiently Improbable: Probability Values and Alpha
The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary
Errors in Hypothesis Testing
The t Statistic and Estimating the Standard Error
The t Distribution and the Degrees of Freedom
Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of White Women
Part II: Testing Hypotheses about Two Samples
The Assumption of Independent Samples
Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses
The Sampling Distribution of the Differences Between Means
The Five Steps in Hypotheses Testing about Difference between Means; A Summary
Statistics in Practice: The Earnings of Asia American Men
Testing the Significance of the Difference
Between Two Sample Proportions
Statistics in Practice: Equaliziang Income
Statistics in Practice: Gender and Abortion Attitudes
Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

14. The Chi-Square Test

The Concepts of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test
The Concept of Statistical Independence
The Structure of Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square
The Limitations of the Chi-Square Test: Sample Size and Statistical Significance
Statistics in Practice: Social Class and Health
Reading the Research Literature: Sibling Cooperation and Academic Achievement

15. Reviewing Inferential Statistics

Normal Distribtuions
Sampling: The Case of AIDS
Statistics in Practice: The War on Drugs
The Process of Statistical Hypothesis Testing
Statistics in Practice: Education and Employment

Appendix A: Table of Random Numbers
Appendix B: The Standard Normal Table
Appendix C: Distribution of t
Appendix D: Distribution of Chi-Square
Appendix E: Distribution of F
Appendix F: A Basic Math Review
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises