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Society: Basics

Society: Basics - 11th edition

Society: Basics - 11th edition

ISBN13: 9780205003785

ISBN10: 0205003788

Society: Basics by John J. Macionis - ISBN 9780205003785
Cover type: Paperback
Edition: 11TH 11
Copyright: 2011
Publisher: Prentice Hall, Inc.
International: No
Society: Basics by John J. Macionis - ISBN 9780205003785

ISBN13: 9780205003785

ISBN10: 0205003788

Cover type: Paperback
Edition: 11TH 11

List price: $145.00

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The emphasis in this textbook is on helping students to see the relevance of the sociological theories and ideas that inform their own lives. Four main themes are found throughout the text: Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life; Social Diversity; Global Comparisons; and Critical Thinking.

Author Bio

John J. Macionis was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor's degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education. In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis' most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson). John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college's multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college's faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students. In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks. Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, ''I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher-a passion for teaching animates everything I do.'' At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal. The Macionis family-John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney-live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York's Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method

Chapter 2: Culture

Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age

Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life

Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations

Chapter 6: Sexuality and Society

Chapter 7: Deviance

Chapter 8: Social Stratification

Chapter 9: Global Stratification

Chapter 10: Gender Stratification

Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity

Chapter 12: Economics and Politics

Chapter 13: Family and Religion

Chapter 14: Education, Health, and Medicine

Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment

Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies


Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method

The Sociological Perspective

Seeing the General in the Particular

Seeing the Strange in the Familiar

Seeing Society in Our Everyday Lives

Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisis

The Importance of a Global Perspective

Applying the Sociological Perspective

Sociology and Public Policy

Sociology and Personal Growth

Careers: The "Sociology Advantage"

The Origins of Sociology

Social Change and Sociology

Science and Sociology

Sociological Theory

Seeing Sociology in the News "In Poor Economy, Laid-off Workers Flocking to Community Colleges"

The Structural-Functional Approach

The Social-Conflict Approach

Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approach

The Race-Conflict Approach

The Symbolic-Interaction Approach

Three Ways to Do Sociology

Positivist Sociology

Interpretive Sociology

Critical Sociology

Research Orientations and Theory

Gender and Research

Research Ethics

Research Methods

Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment

Asking Questions: Survey Research

In the Field: Participant Observation

Using Available Data: Existing Sources

Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Research

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 2: Culture

What Is Culture?

Culture and Human Intelligence

How Many Cultures?

The Elements of Culture



Values and Beliefs


Ideal and Real Culture

Technology and Culture

Hunting and Gathering

Horticulture and Pastoralism



Postindustrial Information Technology

Cultural Diversity

High Culture and Popular Culture




Cultural Change

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Seeing Sociology in the News "US Troops Train for Both Combat and Conversation"

A Global Culture?

Theoretical Analysis of Culture

The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Analysis

Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Analysis

Evolution and Culture: Sociobiology

Culture and Human Freedom

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age

Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

Human Development: Nature and Nurture

Social Isolation

Understanding Socialization

Sigmund Freuds's Elements of Personality

Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development

George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self

Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of Development

Agents of Socialization

The Family

The School

The Peer Group

The Mass Media

Seeing Sociology in the News "The Children of Cyberspace: Old Fogies by Their Twenties"

Socialization and the Life Course




Old Age

Death and Dying

The Life Course: Patterns and Variations

Resocialization: Total Institutions

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life

Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living


Ascribed and Achieved Status

Master Status


Role Conflict and Role Strain

Role Exit

The Social Construction of Reality

Seeing Sociology in the News "For Teenagers, Hello Means 'How about a Hug?'"

"Street Smarts"

The Thomas Theorem


Reality Building: Class and Culture

Dramaturgical Analysis: The "Presentation of Self"


Nonverbal Communication

Gender Performances


Embarrassment and Tact

Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications

Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling

Language: The Social Construction of Gender

Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations

Social Groups

Primary and Secondary Groups

Group Leadership

Group Conformity

Reference Groups

In-Groups and Out-Groups

Group Size

Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender


Formal Organizations

Types of Organizations

Origins of Formal Organizations

Characteristics of Bureaucracy

Organizational Environment

The Informal Side of Bureaucracy

Problems of Bureaucracy

Seeing Sociology in the News "Professor Suspended after Joke about Killing Students on Facebook"

The Evolution of Formal Organizations

Scientific Management

The First Challenge: Race and Gender

The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization

The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work

The "McDonaldization" of Society

The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 6: Sexuality and Society

Understanding Sexuality

Sex: A Biological Issue

Sex and the Body

Sex: A Cultural Issue

The Incest Taboo

Sexual Attitudes in the United States

The Sexual Revolution

The Sexual Counterrevolution

Premarital Sex

Sex Between Adults

Extramarital Sex

Sex over the Life Course

Sexual Orientation

What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation?

How Many Gay People Are There?

The Gay Rights Movement

Seeing Sociology in the News "Making a Prom Date Changes His Fate"

Sexual Issues and Controversies

Teen Pregnancy



Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape

Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality

Structural-Functional Analysis

Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Sample Test Questions

Chapter 7: Deviance

What is Deviance?

Social Control

The Biological Context

Personality Factors

The Social Foundation of Deviance

The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysis

Durkheim's Basic Insight

Merton's Strain Theory

Deviant Subcultures

Labeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

Seeing Sociology in the News "Ex-Employees Turn to Cyber Crime after Layoffs"

Labeling Theory

The Medicalization of Deviance

Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

Hirschi's Control Theory

Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis

Deviance and Power

Deviance and Capitalism

White-Collar Crime

Organized Crime

Deviance, Race, and Gender

Hate Crimes

The Feminist Perspective: Deviance and Gender


Types of Crime

Criminal Statistics

The Street Criminal: A Profile

Crime in Global Perspective

The U.S. Criminal Justice System

Due Process




The Death Penalty

Community-Based Corrections

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 8: Social Stratification

What is Social Stratification?

Caste and Class Systems

The Caste System

The Class System

Caste and Class: The United Kingdom

Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Union

China: Emerging Social Classes

Ideology: The Power Behind Stratification

The Functions of Social Stratification

The Davis-Moore Thesis

Stratification and Conflict

Karl Marx: Class Conflict

Why No Marxist Revolution?

Max Weber: Class, Status, and Power

Stratification and Interaction

Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective

Hunting and Gathering Societies

Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societies

Industrial Societies

The Kuznets Curve

Inequality in the United States

Income, Wealth, and Power

Occupational Prestige


Ancestry, Race, and Gender

Social Classes in the United States

The Upper Class

The Middle Class

The Working Class

The Lower Class

The Difference Class Makes


Values and Attitudes


Family and Gender

Social Mobility

Myth versus Reality

Mobility by Income Level

Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender

Mobility and Marriage

The American Dream: Still a Reality?

Seeing Sociology in the News "Waking Up from American Dreams"

The Global Economy and U.S. Class Structure

Poverty in the United States

The Extent of Poverty

Who Are the Poor?

Explaining Poverty

The Working Poor


Class, Welfare, Politics, and Values

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 9: Global Stratification

Global Stratification: An Overview

A World about Terminology

High-Income Countries

Middle-Income Countries

Low-Income Countries

Global Wealth and Poverty

The Severity of Poverty

The Extent of Poverty

Poverty and Children

Seeing Sociology in the News "The Child Catchers"

Poverty and Women


Explanations of Global Poverty

Global Stratification: Theoretical Analysis

Modernization Theory

Dependency Theory

Global Stratification: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 10: Gender Stratification

Gender and Inequality

Male-Female Differences

Gender in Global Perspective

Patriarchy and Sexism

Gender and Socialization

Gender and the Family

Gender and the Peer Group

Gender and Schooling

Gender and the Mass Media

Gender and Social Stratification

Working Women and Men

Seeing Sociology in the News "Women on Board: Breaking the 'Bamboo Ceiling'"

Gender, Income, and Wealth

Housework: Women's "Second Shift"

Gender and Education

Gender and Politics

Gender and the Military

Are Women a Minority?

Minority Women: Intersection Theory

Violence against Women

Violence against Men

Sexual Harassment


Theoretical Analysis of Gender

Structural-Functional Analysis

Social-Conflict Analysis


Basic Feminist Ideas

Types of Feminism

Opposition to Feminism

Gender: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity




Prejudice and Stereotypes

Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale


Theories of Prejudice


Seeing Sociology in the News "In Job Hunt, College Degree Can't Close Racial Gap"

Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination

Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle

Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction





Race and Ethnicity in the United States

Native Americans

White Anglo-Saxon Protestants

African Americans

Asian Americans

Hispanic Americans/Latinos

Arab Americans

White Ethnic Americans

Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 12: Economics and Politics

The Economy: Historical Overview

The Agricultural Revolution

The Industrial Revolution

The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society

Sectors of the Economy

The Global Economy

Economic Systems: Paths to Justice



Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism

Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism

Changes in Socialist and Capitalist Countries

Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy

The Changing Workplace

Labor Unions



Unemployment and Underemployment

Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender

New Information Technology and Work


Economic Concentration

Conglomerates and Corporate Linkages

Corporation: Are They Competitive?

Corporations and the Global Economy

The Economy: Looking Ahead

Politics: Historical Overview

Politics in Global Perspective





A Global Political System?

Politics in the United States

U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State

The Political Spectrum

Party Identification

Special-Interest Groups

Voter Apathy

Should Convicted Criminals Vote?

Theoretical Analysis of Power in Society

The Pluralist Mode: The People Rule

The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule

The Marxist Model: The System Is Biased

Power beyond the Rules



War and Peace

The Causes of War

Social Class and the Military

Seeing Sociology in the News "GI Jane Breaks the Combat Barrier"

Is Terrorism a New Kind of War?

The Costs and Causes of Militarism

Nuclear Weapons

Mass Media and War

Pursuing Peace

Politics: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 13: Family and Religion

Family: Basic Concepts

Family: Global Variations

Marriage Patterns

Residential Patterns

Patterns of Descent

Patterns of Authority

Theoretical Analysis of Families

Functions of Family: Structural-Functional Analysis

Inequality and Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis

Stages of Family Life

Courtship and Romantic Love

Seeing Sociology in the News "Prenuptial Agreements: Unromantic, but Necessary"

Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage

Child Rearing

The Family in Later Life

U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender

Social Class

Ethnicity and Race


Transitions and Problems in Family Life


Remarriage and Blended Families

Family Violence

Alternative Family Forms

One-Parent Families


Gay and Lesbian Couples


New Reproductive Technologies and Family

Families: Looking Ahead

Religion: Basic Concepts

Theoretical Analysis of Religion

Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysis

Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Analysis

Religion and Social Change

Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism

Liberation Theology

Types of Religious Organization




Religion in History

Religion in the United States

Religious Commitment

Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and Race

Religion in a Changing Society

Changing Affiliation


Civil Religion

"New Age" Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion

Religious Revival: "Good Old-Time Religion"

Religion: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Makin the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 14: Education, Health, and Medicine

Education: A Global Survey

Schooling and Economic Development

Schooling in India

Schooling in Japan

Schooling in the United States

The Functions of Schooling

Schooling and Social Interaction

The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Schooling and Social Inequality

Public and Private Education

Access to Higher Education

Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Education

Seeing Sociology in the News "New Meaning for Night Classes at Two-Year Colleges"

Privilege and Personal Merit

Problems in the Schools

Discipline and Violence

Student Passivity

Dropping Out

Academic Standards

Grade Inflation

Issues in U.S. Education

School Choice

Home Schooling

Schooling People with Disabilities

Adult Education

The Teacher Shortage

Schooling: Looking Ahead

Health and Medicine

Health and Society

Health: A Global Survey

Health in Low-Income Countries

Health in High-Income Countries

Health in the United States

Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Race

Cigarette Smoking

Eating Disorders


Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Ethical Issues Surrounding Death

The Medical Establishment

The Rise of Scientific Medicine

Holistic Medicine

Paying for Medical Care: The United States

The Nursing Shortage

Theoretical Analysis of Health and Medicine

Structural-Functional Analysis: Role Theory

Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: The Meaning of Health

Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

Health and Medicine: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment

Demography: The Study of Population




Population Growth

Population Composition

History and Theory of Population Growth

Malthusian Theory

Demographic Transition Theory

Global Population Today: A Brief Summary

Urbanization: The Growth of Cities

The Evolution of Cities

The Growth of U.S. Cities

Suburbs and Urban Decline

Sunbelt Cities and Urban Sprawl

Megalopolis: The Regional City

Edge Cities

The Rural Rebound

Urbanism as a Way of Life

Ferdinand Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

Georg Simmel: The Blasé Urbanite

The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth

Urban Ecology

Urban Political Economy

Urbanization in Poor Nations

Environment and Society

The Global Dimension

Technology and the Environmental Deficit

Seeing Sociology in the News "Boyz Under the Hood"

Culture: Growth and Limits

Solid Waste: The Disposable Society

Water and Air

The Rain Forests

Environmental Racism

Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and World

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary

Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies

What Is Social Change?

Causes of Social Change

Culture and Change

Conflict and Change

Ideas and Change

Demographic Change

Social Movements and Change

Seeing Sociology in the News "Facebook Helps Spark Movements"

Disasters: Unexpected Change


Ferdinand Tönnies: The Loss of Community

Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor

Max Weber: Rationalization

Karl Marx: Capitalism

Structural-Functional Analysis: Modernity as Mass Society

The Mass Scale of Modern Life

The Ever Expanding State

Social-Conflict Analysis: Modernity as Class Society


Persistent Inequality

Modernity and the Individual

Mass Society: Problems of Identity

Class Society: Problems of Powerlessness

Modernity and Progress

Modernity: Global Variation


Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Making the Grade

Visual Summary