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Thinking Critically

Thinking Critically - 8th edition

Thinking Critically - 8th edition

ISBN13: 9780618536481

ISBN10: 0618536485

Thinking Critically by John Chaffee - ISBN 9780618536481
Edition: 8TH 06
Copyright: 2006
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
International: No
Thinking Critically by John Chaffee - ISBN 9780618536481

ISBN13: 9780618536481

ISBN10: 0618536485

Edition: 8TH 06

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Thinking Critically, 8/e, teaches the fundamental thinking, reasoning, reading, and writing abilities that students need for academic success. The text begins with basic skills related to personal experience and then carefully progresses to the more sophisticated reasoning skills required for abstract, academic contexts. Thinking Critically introduces students to the cognitive process while teaching them to develop their higher-order thinking and language abilities.

A number of distinctive characteristics make the text an effective tool for both instructors and students. Exercises, discussion topics, and writing assignments encourage active participation, stimulating students to critically examine their own and others' thinking. Thinking Critically, 8/e, is a proven, classroom-tested vehicle for presenting the thinking process to students and helping them develop sophisticated critical-thinking and analytical abilities.

  • The enduring themes surrounding the events of September 11 have been infused throughout the text, encouraging students' (and faculty's) critical reflection and analysis. The text presents a global view by providing news articles and speeches from other countries, allowing students to compare these views with U.S. perspectives. Themes and dilemmas explored include patriotism, individual freedom versus national security, and the ways in which different cultures perceive each other.
  • New! Two Portfolios of Color Images--"Thinking Critically About Images: Truth and Reality in Popular Culture" and "Thinking Critically About Images: Truth and Reality in the Media"--help students improve their ability to think critically about visual information. From advertising to current events to web sites, these sections provoke careful and creative analysis of the ways our values, beliefs, and perceptions are influenced (and, occasionally, manipulated) by visual information.
  • New! Many Thinking Activities now appear in the text and link students to the book's companion Web site. These activities, indicated by a distinctive icon in the text, encourage students to move seamlessly from the classroom to the world beyond, offering additional links and web-based activities to enhance their critical and creative engagement with the exercises.
  • New and expanded! Forty in-text readings--and dozens more on the companion web site--reflect the latest thinking on cross-disciplinary topics such as human cloning, globalization, the environment, and challenges to civil liberty, giving instructors more choice and currency while retaining those readings most popular with users.
  • New! A Glossary helps students remember and review not only critical thinking terms but also Internet terms, supporting less computer-savvy students as they work through the Internet activities.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Thinking

Living an "Examined" Life
Working Toward Goals
Thinking Passage: From the Autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X with Alex Haley
Discovering "Who" You Are
Living Creatively
Thinking Passage: "Original Spin" by Lesley Dormen and Peter Edidin
Final Thoughts

2. Thinking Critically

Thinking Actively
Carefully Exploring Situations with Questions
Thinking Independently
Viewing Situations from Different Perspectives
Supporting Diverse Perspectives with Reasons and Evidence
Discussing Ideas in an Organized Way
Becoming a Critical Thinker
Creating a Thinking World
Analyzing Issues
Thinking Passages: Jurors' and Judges' Reasoning Processes
"Jurors Hear Evidence and Turn It into Stories" by Daniel Goleman
"Judicial Reasoning Is All Too Human" by Patricia Cohen

3. Solving Problems

Thinking Critically About Problems
Introduction to Solving Problems
Solving Complex Problems
Solving Nonpersonal Problems
Thinking Passages: Liberty Versus Security
"Liberty v Security" by The Economist
"National I.D. Cards: One Size Fits All" by Daniel J. Wakin
"Living Under an Electronic Eye" by Lisa Guernsey
"Construction of an Enemy" by Eleanor Stein
"The Unknown Citizen" by W. H. Auden

4. Perceiving

Actively Selecting, Organizing, and Interpreting Sensations
Thinking Passage: Experiences Shape Your Perceptions
"Acquired Knowledge" by Anonymous
Thinking Critically About Perceptions
Thinking Passage: Plato's Allegory of the Cave: The Journey from Perception to Knowledge
"On Plato's Cave" by Sonja Tanner
Thinking Passages: Perception and Global Conflict
"A World Not Neatly Divided" by Amartya Sen
"The Origins of Occidentalism" by Ian Buruma
"War of Ideas, Part 6" by Thomas L. Friedman
Photo Essay

5. Believing and Knowing

Believing and Perceiving
Believing and Knowing
Thinking Passage: "Is the Earth Round or Flat?" by Alan Lightman
Knowledge and Truth
Thinking Critically About Your Beliefs
Using Perspective-Taking to Achieve Knowledge
Thinking Passage: "Why I Quit the Klan" by C. P. Ellis
Beliefs Based on Indirect Experience
Evaluating Online Information
Final Thoughts

6. Language and Thought

The Evolution of Language
The Symbolic Nature of Language
Using Language Effectively
Thinking Passage: From Blue Highways by William Least Heat-Moon
Using Language to Clarify Thinking
Thinking Passage: "An Account of Avianca Flight 52"
Using Language in Social Contexts
Using Language to Influence
Final Thoughts
Thinking Passage: Gender Differences in Language
"Sex, Lies, and Conversation: Why Is It So Hard for Men and Women to Talk to Each Other?" by Deborah Tannen

7. Forming and Applying Concepts

What Are Concepts?
The Structure of Concepts
Forming Concepts
Applying Concepts
Thinking Passages: Femininity and Masculinity
"Femininity" by Susan Brownmiller
"The Return of Manly Men" by Patricia Leigh Brown
Using Concepts to Classify
Defining Concepts
Thinking Passage: "Identify Yourself: Who's American?" by Gregory Rodriguez
Relating Concepts with Mind Maps
Final Thoughts
Thinking Passage: "What Is Religion?" by Frederick J. Streng

8. Relating and Organizing

Chronological and Process Relationships
Thinking Passage: "Back, but Not Home" by Maria Muniz
Comparative and Analogical Relationships
Causal Relationships
Final Thoughts
Thinking Passages: Environmental Issues
"Worried? Us?" by Bill McKibben
"The Conundrum of Consumption" by Alan Thein Durning
Photo Essay

9. Reporting, Inferring, and Judging

Reporting Factual Information
Thinking Passage: "The End of My Childhood" by N. Scott Momaday
The Thinker's Guide to Moral Decision-Making
Final Thoughts
Thinking Passage: "Evolution as Fact and Theory" by Stephen Jay Gould

10. Constructing Arguments

Recognizing Arguments
Evaluating Arguments
Understanding Deductive Arguments
Constructing Extended Arguments
Final Thoughts
Thinking Passages: Human Cloning
"U.S. Company Says It Cloned Human Embryo for Cells" by Maggie Fox
"No Fear" by Richard T. Hull
"Even If It Worked, Cloning Wouldn't Bring Her Back" by Thomas H. Murray

11. Reasoning Critically

Inductive Reasoning
Empirical Generalization
Fallacies of False Generalization
Thinking Passage: Detecting Fallacies of False Generalization
"She's Not Really Ill. . ." by Maureen Dowd
Causal Reasoning
Thinking Passage: Researching Cures and Prevention
"'3 x 5' Progress Report" by World Health Organization/UNAIDS
Causal Fallacies
Fallacies of Relevance
The Critical Thinker's Guide to Reasoning
Thinking Passages: "Critical Thinking and Obedience to Authority" by John Sabini and Maury Silver
"Pressure to Go Along with Abuse Is Strong, but Some Soldiers Find Strength to Refuse" by Anahad O'Connor

12. Thinking Critically, Living Creatively

Living a Life Philosophy
Deciding on a Career
Thinking Passages: Finding Meaning in Work
"The Stunt Pilot" by Annie Dillard
"Cut Time" by Carlo Rotella
"Spellbound by the Eternal Riddle, Scientists Revel in Their Captivity" by Alan Lightman
Thinking Critically About Personal Relationships
The Thinker's Guide to Healthy Relationships
Choosing "the Good Life"